Surveillance Essays (Examples)

Study Document

Hepatitis B Virus Infection

Pages: 5 (1453 words) Sources: 8 Document Type:Essay Document #:69592273

...Surveillance Hepatitis B
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major public health problem across the globe as it contributes to nearly 1 million deaths annually. It is an infection that basically attacks the liver and has the potential to generate acute and chronic diseases. This communicable disease is mostly transmitted from mother to child during birth. Additionally, HBV is transmitted through contact with body fluids like blood. Since it is a life-threatening condition, the viral infection has received considerable attention in the healthcare sector. Healthcare professionals and other relevant stakeholders have developed various initiatives to help lessen the prevalence of this infection and mitigate its impacts worldwide. This paper analyzes this communicable disease, determinants of health relating to its development, epidemiological triad, and role of the nurse practitioner in the management of the infectious disease.
Analysis of the Communicable Disease
The World Health Organization (2019) defines hepatitis B virus as a……



American Association of Nurse Practitioners. (2019, January 28). Nurse Practitioner Role Grows to More Than 270,000. Retrieved July 23, 2020, from

Greene, K.M., Duffus, W.A., Xing, J., & King, H. (2017). Social Determinants of Health Associated with HBV Testing and Access to Care among Foreign-born Persons Residing in the United States: 2009-2012. Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice, 10(2), 1-20.

Healthy People. (2020). Determinants of Health. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Health and Human Services website: 

Kim, H. & Kim, W.R. (2018, August 22). Epidemiology of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in the United States. Clinical Liver Disease, 12(1), 1-4.

Kim, W.R. (2012, March 1). Epidemiology of Hepatitis B in the United States. Hepatology, 49(5), S28-S34.

MacLachlan, J.H. & Cowie, B.C. (2015, May). Hepatitis B Virus Epidemiology. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine, 5(5). doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a021410

World Health Organization. (2019, July 18). Hepatitis B. Retrieved July 23, 2020, from

Zhang, Z., Wang, C., Liu, Z., Zou, G., Li, J. & Lu, M. (2019, August 13). Host Genetic Determinants of Hepatitis B Virus Infection. Frontiers in Genetics, 10(696),1-24.

Study Document

Traditional Medicine Usage In African Nations

Pages: 12 (3615 words) Sources: 30 Document Type:Essay Document #:38085332

… Ebola outbreak: “six response teams were developed within the Emergency Operations Center (EOC). The EOC specific to an Ebola response, including: 1) Epidemiology Surveillance, 2) Case Management/Infection Control, 3) Social Mobilization, 4) Laboratory Services, 5) Point of Entry, and 6) Management/Coordination” (Shuaib et al., 2014, p. 868). ……



Afro-centric Alliance, A. (2001). Indigenisingorganizational change: Localisation in Tanzania and Malawi. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 16(1), 59-78.

Asiseh, F., Owusu, A., & Quaicoe, O. (2017). An analysis of family dynamics on high school adolescent risky behaviors in Ghana. Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse, 26(5), 425-431.

Austin, G. (2010). African economic development and colonial legacies (Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 11-32). Institut de hautes études internationales et du développement.

Brager, G., Specht, H., Torczyner, J. L., &Torczyner, J. (1987). Community organizing. Columbia University Press.

Bratton, M., & Van de Walle, N. (1997). Democratic experiments in Africa: Regime transitions in comparative perspective. Cambridge university press.

Burnham, G. M., Pariyo, G., Galiwango, E., & Wabwire-Mangen, F. (2004). Discontinuation of cost sharing in Uganda. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 82, 187-195.

Dillard, C., Duncan, K. L., & Johnson, L. (2017). Black History Full Circle: Lessons from a Ghana Study Abroad in Education Program. Social Education, 81(1), 50-53.

Ehui, S. (2020). Protecting food security in Africa. Retrieved from

Study Document

Homelessness In United States Essay Outline

Pages: 5 (1450 words) Sources: 10 Document Type:Annotated Bibliography Document #:95424322

...Surveillance Homelessness in America - Essay Outline
Homelesssness in America
I. Introduction
a. Definition of Homelessness
i. Homelessness is the lack of a stable, safe and permanent housing due to lack of income, poor housing policies, and neighborhood gentrification (Dreyer, 2018).
ii. A comprehensive, broad-based definition that can be used consistently for homelessness initiatives does not exist (Yousey & Samudra, 2018).
b. Overview of Homelessness
i. Homelessness is an egregious problem that has existed in the United States since 1980s and attributable to various factors and causes (Dreyer, 2018).
ii. Multifaceted and multisectoral approaches are the most suitable interventions to address the growing problem of homelessness.
II. Statistics on Homelessness
a. Lifetime and 1-year Prevalence of Homelessness
i. Lifetime prevalence of homelessness in the United States population is approximately 4.2% (Tsai, 2018).
ii. 1-year prevalence of homelessness in the U.S. population is estimated at 1.5% (Tsai, 2018).
b. Youth Homelessness



Dreyer, B.P. (2018), A Shelter is not a Home: The Crisis of Family Homelessness in the United States, Pediatrics, 142(5) 1-3, httpps://doi.org10.1542/peds.2018-2695 Ly, A. & Latimer, E., (2015), Housing First Impact on Cost and Associated Cost Offsets A review of literature, Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 60(11) 475-487, doi: 10.1177/070674371506001103

Mabhala, M.A., Yohannes, A. & , Griffith, M. (2017), Social Conditions of Becoming Homelessness, Qualitative Analysis of Life Stories of Homelessness People, International Journal for Equity in Health, 16(150), Doi:10.1186/s12939-017-0646-3

Morton et al, (2017), Prevalence and Correlates of Youth Homelessness in the United States, Journal of Adolescent Health, 62, 14-21 Doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2017.10.006

Oppenheimer, S.C., Nurius, P.S. & Green, S. (2018) Homeless History Impact on Health Outcome and Economics and Risk Behaviors Intermediaries: New Insight from Population Data, Families in Society, 97(3), 230-242, Doi:10.1606/1044-3894.2016.97.21

Tsai, J., O’Toole, T. & Kearney, L. K. (2017), Homelessness as a Public Mental Health and Social Problem, New Knowledge and Solution, Psychological Services, 14(2), 113-117, 

Tsai, J. (2018), Lifetime and 1-year Prevalence of Homelessness in the U.S. Population: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-111, Journal of Public Health 40(1), 65-78, 

Yousey, A. & Samundra, R. (2018) Defining Homelessness in the Rural United States, Online Journal of Rural Research & Policy, 13(4), 

Weisz, C. & Quinn, D.M. (2017), Stigmatized and identities Psychological Distress and Physical Health, Intersection of homelessness and Race, Stigma and Health 1-6,

Study Document

The Militarization Of Social Distancing In America

Pages: 4 (1152 words) Sources: 2 Document Type:Essay Document #:75058932

...Surveillance Socialization into Militarization
Life definitely seems a lot more militarized now that social distancing norms have become common place and the National Guard is doing its part to make sure people are adhering to stay at home orders. All the workers at the grocery store are now wearing masks (even though they were not two months ago—so it does not make sense why all of a sudden now it is important that they all wear masks as though it is somehow keeping everyone safer or as though the mask itself was a threat to the virus and the virus was going to back away because it saw a mask). The ridiculousness with which people are simply obeying all these insane rules and orders looks very much to me like how a truly militarized nation would act. Orders come, they are not questioned, and no one says anything. Of course, if……



Farberov, S. (2020). Moment Idaho mom arrested. Retrieved from 

WDRB. (2020). Louisville woman arrested at Kroger for violating self-quarantine order after COVID-19 diagnosis. Retrieved from 


Study Document

COVID 19 Evaluation And Assessment

Pages: 4 (1102 words) Sources: 4 Document Type:Case Study Document #:95807813

...Surveillance Keywords:  corona virus, coronavirus, covid, covid-19
The patient in the present scenario presents with low grade fever, cough, shortness of breath, as well as back ache. It is also important to note that the patient suffers from gastroesophageal reflux disease, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. The patient is a 54-year-old male. Some of the symptoms that the patient presents are consistent with COVID-19 symptoms. The main COVID-19 symptoms are inclusive of difficulty breathing/shortness of breath, cough, and fever (Adhikari, 2020). Yet another key consideration in making a decision to test is the patient’s travel history. The patient in the present scenario has recently traveled out of the U.S. He could, thus, be categories as a person under investigation (PUI), i.e. on the basis of the respiratory illness symptoms presented and based on the fact that he had traveled to a country having local transmission. Testing in this case would be consistent……



Adhikari, S.P., Meng, S., Wi, Y., Mao, Y., Ye., R., Wang, Q. …Zhou, H. (2020). Epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, prevention and control of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) during the early outbreak period: a scoping review. Infectious Diseases of Poverty, 9(29) 78-83.

CDC (2020). Evaluating and Testing Persons for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Retrieved from

Pung, R., Chiew, C.J., Young, B.E., Chin, S., Chen, M., Clapham, H.E. …Lee, V.J. (2020). Investigation of three clusters of COVID-19 in Singapore: implications for surveillance and response measures. The Lancet, 395(10229), P1039-1046.

Schiffrin, E.L., Flack, J.M., Sadayoshi, I., Muntner, P. & Webb, R.C. (2020). Hypertension and COVID-19. American Journal of Hypertension, 057.

World Health Organization – WHO (2020). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) advice for the public: Myth busters. Retrieved from

Wei, M., Yuan, J. & Liu, Y. (2020). Novel Coronavirus Infection in Hospitalized Infants Under 1 Year of Age in China. JAMA, 323(13), 1213-1314.

Study Document

Weapons Of Mass Destruction WMD Antifa

Pages: 13 (3787 words) Sources: 12 Document Type:Research Paper Document #:67320498

… Hawkeye implemented at the Port of Miami. It also coordinates between local, state and federal agencies to bring about a robust application of surveillance and oversight to ports and seaways. However, as technological advancements increase and more and more ports see more and more traffic, the risk ……



Chatfield, A. T., Reddick, C. G., & Brajawidagda, U. (2015, May). Tweeting propaganda, radicalization and recruitment: Islamic state supporters multi-sided twitter networks. In Proceedings of the 16th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research (pp. 239-249).

Christenson, G. (2015). CBRN response. National Guard Bureau.

Freberg, K., Graham, K., McGaughey, K., & Freberg, L. A. (2011). Who are the social media influencers? A study of public perceptions of personality. Public Relations Review, 37(1), 90-92.

Garellek, A. (2016, March 4). The ISIS WMD Threat. The Cipher Brief. Retrieved from 

Jennings, P. (2006). Miami port poses serious risks. Retrieved from 

Johnston, W.R. (2016, November 30). Summary of historical attacks using chemical or biological weapons. The Johnston Archive. Retrieved from 

Klein, A. (2019). From Twitter to Charlottesville: Analyzing the Fighting Words Between the Alt-Right and Antifa. International Journal of Communication, 13, 22.

Maras, M-H. (2014). Transnational Security. Florida: CRC Press.

Study Document

Acquisition Process In Action At The Department Of Energy

Pages: 10 (2943 words) Sources: 8 Document Type:Research Paper Document #:56403146

… including the following:
· New On-Site Disposal Facility Planned
· Outfall 200 Mercury Treatment Conceptual Design Project
· Mercury Recovery Project
· Y-12 Surveillance & Maintenance Corrective and Preventative Maintenance
· Old Salvage Yard Scrap Removal
· Building 9735 Demolition
· Alpha 5 Project
· Beta 3 ……



About DOE. (2020). U.S. Department of Energy. Retrieved from ,

About Y-12. (2020). U.S. Department of Energy. Retrieved from  about.

Birchfield, J. W. & Albrecht, L. (2012). Successful characterization strategies for the active high risk Y-12 National Security Complex 9201-5 (Alpha-5) Facility, Oak Ridge, TN - 12164. United States.

Recovery cleanup project at Y-12. (2010). U.S. Department of Energy. Retrieved from .

Standard review plan: Acquisition strategy review module. (2010, March). Washington, DC: Office of Environmental Management.

Supplement analysis for the site-wide environmental impact statement for the Y-12 National Security Complex (DOE/EIS-0387-SA-02). (2018, May). U.S. Department of Energy. Retrieved from .

Teamwork successfully brings down the Alpha 5 Annex. (2018). U.S. Department of Energy. Retrieved from

Study Document

Ethics And Health Information

Pages: 8 (2462 words) Sources: 6 Document Type:Term Paper Document #:87876213

… 100% guaranteed, as there are other ways for hackers to steal data. Data breaches can occur by hacking into the centralized identity repository; surveillance can be conducted of all data and patients’ privacy can be compromised (Crossler & Posey, 2017). Denial of service attacks can occur, eavesdropping, ……



Campbell, R. J. (2004). Database Design: What HIM Professionals Need to Know.

Perspectives in Health Information Management 2004, 1:6 (August 4, 2004). Retrieved from 

Crossler, R. E., & Posey, C. (2017). Robbing Peter to Pay Paul: Surrendering Privacy for Security's Sake in an Identity Ecosystem. Journal of The Association for Information Systems, 18(7), 487-515.

Donovan, F. (2018). Judge Gives Final OK to $115M Anthem Data Breach Settlement. Retrieved from (2018). Health Information Privacy, Security, and Your EHR. Retrieved from 

The IMIA Code of Ethics for Health Information Professionals. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.imia

Jackson, R. (2018). Pulling strings. Retrieved from 

Prince, B. (2013). Programming Languages Susceptible to Specific Security Flaws: Report. Eweek, 12.  Retrieved from

Study Document


Pages: 12 (3490 words) Sources: 6 Document Type:question answer Document #:11133529

...Surveillance Question 1: Construct an assessment of ONCIX strategy, prevention and detection concerning either insider threats, or, economic threats.
Preventing and detecting insider threats is one of the core aspects of the ONCIX strategy. As a new premier counterintelligence and security agency in the U.S. government, ONCIX needs a strong understanding of how to identify and deter insider threats. According to its strategy, “the most effective safeguard against insider threats is a knowledgeable, trusted workforce which is confident that their privacy and civil liberties are respected.”[footnoteRef:2] Making sure that its employees are trustworthy and invested is the first line of defense against insider threats. Gathering data from multiple sources is another line of defense in the ONCIX strategy to mitigate the risk of malicious insiders. The basis of the approach is to use a whole-person, whole-of-career concept that so as to analyze data and to identify anomalies that present themselves. Anomalies……



Counter intelligence for National Security, CIA, 1993.

Johnston, David and James Risen, “U.S.had evidence of espionage,” New York Times, 2001.

National Counterintelligence Strategy of the United States of America 2016 (Strategy). 

Prunckun, Hank. 2012. Counterintelligence Theory and Practice, Lanham: Rowman&Littlefield Publishers Inc. Read the following: Chapters 8 to 14, pages 131 to 217. Appendices A to D, pages 219 to 231.

Richelson, Jeffrey. 2007. “The Pentagon’s Counterspies: The Counterintelligence Field Activity (CIFA).” (September 17). National Security Archive. Accessed January 19, 2017. .

Van Cleave, Michelle. “Strategic Counterintelligence: What Is It and What Should We Do About It ?” 2007. CIA Center for the Study of Intelligence.

Study Document

Workplace Trends And Changes

Pages: 7 (2170 words) Sources: 5 Document Type:Term Paper Document #:67790748

...Surveillance Introduction
Three big trends impacting the workplace are 1) the effects of the #MeToo Movement and the need to implement policies to protect workers against sexual harassment, 2) the role that AI is playing in the workplace and the impact it is having on issues such as worker privacy, and 3) the problem of politics and how there may be gaps between the type of culture the administration wants to cultivate and the socio-political beliefs of some of its workers. For instance, Google has recently come under fire for demonstrating bias against conservative workers whose socio-political views do not reflect that administration’s Left-leaning politics (Ghaffary). This paper will discuss these trending issues, how they might impact the role of the administrative professional and the support they provide and how the administrative professional can positively influence any of the changes required as a result of the current issues as they give……


Works Cited

Ghaffary, S. Political tension at Google is only getting worse. Vox, 2019. 

Kreager, Derek A., and Jeremy Staff. "The sexual double standard and adolescent peer acceptance." Social psychology quarterly 72.2 (2009): 143-164.

Nilsson, Warren. "Positive institutional work: Exploring institutional work through the lens of positive organizational scholarship." Academy of Management Review 40.3 (2015): 370-398.

O'Neil, Adrienne, et al. "The# MeToo movement: an opportunity in public health?." The Lancet 391.10140 (2018): 2587-2589.

PLBSH. Yes, Men Can Be Sexually Harassed In The Workplace. PLBSH, 2019. 

Wong, N. & Chin, Y. “Issues and Challenges Faced by Generation X While Managing Generation Y.” International Journal of Business and Social Science 7.2 (2016): 167-170.

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