… patience and empathy in writing his Letter. 100 years after the Mississippi Black Code, he was having to explain why the institutionalization of racism was bad for America, bad for Christians, bad for people everywhere. And now it appears that people need that reminder once more, more … the past and present is the same as it ever was: without the ideological biases that are passed down from generation to generation, racism would likely not be an issue in the U.S. But it is—because peers, groups, and media all tend to focus on labeling, dividing, ……
King, Jr., Martin Luther. “Letter from Birmingham Jail.” 1963.
The Mississippi Black Code of 1865.
Racism, colorism, prejudice, discrimination, and/or implicit bias are all strategies for devaluing a particular group of individuals. Racism is a social concept that most adults learn as they grow. Looking at children one can see that they do not perceive race … most respected basketball players are black Americans. However, this does not prevent discrimination for other African Americans.
We all have some form of racism and prejudice within ourselves. The only difference is in how we choose to express it all. Understanding that due to social interactions we … express it all. Understanding that due to social interactions we are bound to feel a certain way about certain individuals we can overcome racism. White people will accept the diversity in their country but they will still be fearful when they are met with a Latino or ……
… in order to facilitate the white slave owners’ rule over their African slave, he unwittingly laid the foundation stone for American elitism and racism that has since come to characterize the ruling class’ use of mass media in controlling the population (Heaggans). As Horkheimer and Adorno later … dissection of the Culture Industry, the controllers of mass media have essentially used the basic framework of Lynch to perpetuate the idea of racism and to use race as a means of dividing and conquering the population, keeping the mass of men and women disunited and disempowered, … and preventing them from uniting and standing up to the powers that be. As history has shown, whenever leaders stand up to end racism or to attack the elitism that perpetuates the system of racism in the U.S, those leaders are assassinated: from John Brown to Martin Luther King, Jr. to Malcolm X,……
Adorno, Theodor and M. Horkheimer. The culture industry: Enlightenment as mass deception. Stardom and celebrity: A reader, 34, 2007.
Aldrige, Derick. “From Civil Rights to Hip Hop: Toward a Nexus of Ideas.” http://www.thehiphopproject.org/site/pdfs/hhp_civilRights.pdf
Blair, Elizabeth. “The Strange Story of the Man behind Strange Fruit.” NPR. http://www.npr.org/2012/09/05/158933012/the-strange-story-of-the-man-behind-strange-fruit
Cashmore, Ellis. The Black culture industry. Routledge, 2006.
Collins, Patricia Hill. "New commodities, new consumers: Selling blackness in a global marketplace." Ethnicities 6.3 (2006): 297-317.
Davis, Angela. The Meaning of Freedom. San Francisco, CA: City Light Books, 2012.
Guy, Talmadge C. "Gangsta rap and adult education." New directions for adult and continuing education 2004.101 (2004): 43-57.
Heaggans, Raphael C. "When the oppressed becomes the oppressor: Willie Lynch and the politics of race and racism in hip-hop music." West Virginia University Philological Papers 50 (2003): 77-81.
Racism and Gender Oppression
In the speeches of Angela Y. Davis, black female activist of the 20th century, one sees a remarkable discernment of … Stalin and his repressive and oppressive policies. [3: Alan Gómez, “Resisting Living Death at Marion Federal Penitentiary, 1972,” Radical History Review 96 (2006), 59.]
Racism, Gender Oppression, the Regulation of Sexuality, and Global Capitalism
Davis’s interpretation of the prison-industrial complex and of the order of the U.S. as … Capitalism
Davis’s interpretation of the prison-industrial complex and of the order of the U.S. as a whole is filtered through the lens of racism and gender oppression. Linked to these concepts are the regulation of sexuality and the issue of global capitalism—the unregulated pursuit of market dominance, … is no different from the old plantation system during the times of slavery. The ends are the same—to subjugate and exploit the minorities. Racism, gender oppression, capitalism—all of these……
Davis, Angela. The Meaning of Freedom. San Francisco, CA: City Light Books, 2012.
Gomez, Alan. “Resisting Living Death at Marion Federal Penitentiary, 1972,” Radical History Review 96 (2006): 58–86.
Prashad, Vijay. “Second-Hand Dreams,” Social Analysis 49: 2 (Summer 2005): 191-198.
Sudbury, Julia. “A World Without Prisons: Resisting Militarism, Globalized Punishment, and Empire,” Social Justice 31.2 (2004): 9-28.
… of what can appear concrete due to racial prejudices and constructions (Obasogie 176).
One example of both the pervasiveness and the ridiculousness of racism cited by Obasogie is that which was fostered against Japanese-Americans during World War II. Before the attacks on Pearl Harbor, prejudice against Asian … with reality. Racial ideology can be blinding.
Obasogie notes that many ideological solutions have been proposed to the deep, entrenched acknowledged problem of racism in American society. One is that of colorblindness, perhaps best embodied in Guess Who’s Coming to…[break]…differences, and enable Americans to start anew, as ……
Obasogie, Osagie. Blinded by Sight: Seeing Race Through the Eyes of the Blind. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2014.
… Othering puts people on the sidelines and negates their existence as meaningful in and of itself. Nadine Naber states that because of cultural racism in the wake of 9/11, othering has exploded and it has led to tensions throughout American communities. To address the issue of othering, … newspapers and “found that patriotic ideals—the American flag, military, and National Anthem, in particular—were used as a way to avoid completely discussions on racism” (1). In other words, by playing up the patriotism angle, discourse on othering and the oppression of black communities was sidestepped. Those who … to show their patriotism for a country that has learned to structure itself in a truly egalitarian way.
The issue of structural racism in America is deeply entrenched in the nation’s history and the recent riots and protests have only shown that the wound has yet ……
Carbado, Devon W. \\\\\\"Racial naturalization.\\\\\\" American Quarterly 57.3 (2005): 633-658.
Graber, Shane M., Ever J. Figueroa, and Krishnan Vasudevan. \\\\\\"Oh, Say, Can You Kneel: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Newspaper Coverage of Colin Kaepernick’s Racial Protest.\\\\\\" Howard Journal of Communications (2019): 1-17.
Morrison, Toni. “Recitatif.” Skin Deep. Doubleday, 1995.
Naber, Nadine. “Osama’s Daughters: Cultural Racism, Nation-Based Racism, and the Intersectionality of Oppressions after 9/11.” Review of Women’s Studies, 5 (2009), 50-63.
Sabo, Samantha, et al. \\\\\\"Everyday violence, structural racism and mistreatment at the US– Mexico border.\\\\\\" Social Science & Medicine 109 (2014): 66-74.
… arose from the ashes of Sherman’s March. Jim Crow laws reigned where Douglass had hoped to see Yankee law prevail. Reconstruction floundered and racism persisted. This paper will show how the goals of Reconstruction regarding African-Americans were not achieved by 1900 because of a failure of the ……
A&E. “Carpetbaggers and Scalawags.” History, 2018. https://www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/carpetbaggers-and-scalawags
Douglass, Frederick. “Reconstruction.” The Atlantic, 1866. https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1866/12/reconstruction/304561/
Guelzo, Allen. Reconstruction Didn\\\\'t Fail. It Was Overthrown. Time, 2018. http://time.com/5256940/reconstruction-failure-excerpt/
McBride, Alex. “Plessy v. Ferguson.” Thirteen, 2007. https://www.thirteen.org/wnet/supremecourt/antebellum/landmark_plessy.html
Johnson, Andrew. “A Proclamation.” Digital History, 1865. http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/exhibits/reconstruction/section4/section4_pardon1.html
Lincoln, Abraham. Second Inaugural Address, 1865. http://avalon.law.yale.edu/19th_century/lincoln2.a sp
… go unreported due to the “blue wall of silence” in police culture. Even if poor leadership in policing is more to blame than racism itself, the fact that black males experience a disproportionate number of such instances and are also stopped and arrested more often than their … Floyd and the riots in Minneapolis. A discussion of Black Lives Matter and Antifa will also show how the society is responding to racism in America. Additionally, this essay will show how the George Floyd incident led to a public discussion about defunding police. Racial equality and … led to a public discussion about defunding police. Racial equality and justice in America require a total overhaul of institutions like law enforcement.
Racism in the Age of Covid
2020 brought about massive changes in American and global societies due to the covid-19 pandemic. Along the surreal … number of people of color……
Black Lives Matter (2020). Retrieved from: https://blacklivesmatter.com/about/
Cole, B. (2020). Minnesota asks Trump to declare ‘major disaster’ over riots damage. Newsweek. 3 July, 2020. Retrieved from: https://www.newsweek.com/minnesota-riots-tim-walz-clean-george-floyd-1515335
Glover, S., Richards, C., Devine, C., et al. (2020). A key miscalculation by officers contributed to the tragic death of Breonna Taylor. CNN. 23 July, 2020. Retrieved from: https://www.cnn.com/2020/07/23/us/breonna-taylor-police-shooting-invs/index.html
“History of Juneteenth,” (2020). juneteenth.com. Retrieved from: https://www.juneteenth.com/history.htm
Ray, R. (2020). What does ‘defund the police’ mean and does it have merit? Brookings. Retrieved from: https://www.brookings.edu/blog/fixgov/2020/06/19/what-does-defund-the-police-mean-and-does-it-have-merit/
“Seven Things You Need to Know About Antifa,” (2020). BBC. Retrieved from: https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/articles/X56rQkDgd0qqB7R68t6t7C/seven-things-you-need-to-know-about-antifa
“Who Are Antifa?” (2020). ADL. Retrieved from : https://www.adl.org/resources/backgrounders/who-are-antifa
… the subject, somewhat like a myth and one that needs to be dispelled. He begins by bringing up the dominant theme of the book—racism—which Klarman points out had remained “strong in the North in the years after the Civil War.”[footnoteRef:2] Racism was not just a regional issue; rather, it had been entrenched in American politics throughout the country and to a large degree it … American politics throughout the country and to a large degree it was institutionalized. The Jim Crow Era was proof of the institutionalization of racism and even at the Supreme Court level, the justices were sympathetic more towards “the white southerners, ‘who are to be coerced out of … wanted to promote a white Aryan race only and exterminate all other races.…[break]…as the Court tried to deal with the issues of segregation, racism, and how to transform a society at the most basic, fundamental level—the……
Cripps, Thomas and and David Culbert. “The Negro Soldier (1944): Film Propaganda in Black and White.” American Quarterly Vol. 31, No. 5, Special Issue: Film and American Studies (Winter, 1979), pp. 616-640: The Josh Hopkins University Press.
German, Kathleen M. Promises of Citizenship: Film Recruitment of African Americans in World War 2. University Press of Mississippi, 2017.
Klarman, Michael. Brown v Board of Education and the Civil Rights Moment. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2007.
… “experienced significantly longer periods of confinement in jail and were jailed at a much higher rate than white people,” (“New report points to racism and longer confinement of African Americans in Travis…[break]…by which African Americans have overcome the scourge of slavery and racism. Empowerment through initiatives like these help stimulate interest in building small businesses, promoting community cohesion, and ensuring a supportive environment in which neighbor ……
Austin History Center (2019). African American Community Archivist. Retrieved from https://library.austintexas.gov/ahc/african-american-community-archivist
Castillo, J. (2018). Exhibit on African Americans in Travis County tells stories, reveals gaps. Statesman. 27 Sept, 2018. Retrieved from https://www.statesman.com/article/20120925/NEWS/309259130
Chang, J. (2018). Black children in Travis County 8 times more likely to be removed by CPS than white children. Statesman. 25 Oct, 2018. Retrieved from https://www.statesman.com/news/20181020/black-children-in-travis-county-8-times-more-likely-to-be-removed-by-cps-than-white-children
Craver, J. (2017). African-Americans spend more time in Travis County jail for same offenses as whites. Austin Monitor. 14 Jul 2017. Retrieved from https://www.austinmonitor.com/stories/2017/07/african-americans-spend-time-travis-county-jail-offenses-whites/
Davis, C. (2018). African-Americans are moving to Austin again, but many don’t feel welcome. KXAN. 15 Jan, 2018. Retrieved from https://www.kxan.com/news/local/austin/african-americans-are-moving-to-austin-again-but-many-dont-feel-welcome/
Menon, S. (2019). Conference aims to help more African-Americans get mental health care. KUT. 25 Feb, 2019. Retrieved from https://www.kut.org/post/conference-aims-help-more-african-americans-get-mental-health-care
“New report points to racism and longer confinement of African Americans in Travis County Jail,” (2017). Grassroots Leadership. 13 July, 2017. Retrieved from https://grassrootsleadership.org/releases/2017/07/new-report-points-racism-and-longer-confinement-african-americans-travis-county
Prosperity Now (2019). Racial wealth divide in Austin. Retrieved from https://www.austincf.org/Portals/0/Uploads/Documents/Reports/Racial%20Wealth%20Divide%20Profile%20Austin_February%202019_%20Final3.pdf
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