...Hostages Public Administration
How Public Administrative Discretion Works
The main difference between public and private administration is that in the former the administration both administers to the public and is accountable to the public; in the latter, the administration is accountable only to stakeholders, which may or may not include members of the community/public. Other differences include the fact that in private administration, the idea is that the administration is overseeing some business organization that focuses on a goal related to its mission, its business model. Public administration, on the other hand, refers to a political process wherein official administrators are elected or appointed to do a job for the good of the public. They typically control or use public funds; must give a public accounting of how funds are used, and must to all intents and purposes fulfill a mandate given them by the public—though, of course, it is……
Cann, S. (2007). The Administrative State, the Exercise of Discretion, and the Constitution. Public Administration Review, 67(4), 780–782.
EPA. (2015). Administrative discretion. Retrieved from https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-11/documents/administrative_discretion_nonotesclean.pdf
Reyes, P., & Pounder, D. G. (1993). Organizational orientation in public and private elementary schools. The Journal of Educational Research, 87(2), 86-93.
Reyes, D. R. (1998). Public sector reengineering: Practice, problems and prospects.
Rinaldi, M., Montanari, R., & Bottani, E. (2015). Improving the efficiency of public
administrations through business process reengineering and simulation: A case study. Business Process Management Journal, 21(2), 419-462.
Rubenstein, D. S. (2015). Administrative Federalism as Separation of Powers. Wash. & Lee L. Rev., 72, 171.
Savoie, D. J. (2006). What is wrong with the new public management?. In Comparative Public Administration (pp. 593-602). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
...Hostages Reaction to My Depression
My Depression (n.d.) shows how serious depression can be for a person and it does so in a manner that really helps to eliminate much of the strangeness and taboo nature of the issue of depression. It explains how people experience depression in a way that allows the viewer to sympathize with and understand the subject. This is important because depression is often something that goes unappreciated. People think that if a person is depressed it is just because the individual wants to be depressed and that all that the person has to do is snap himself out of it and be happy again. The video shows that this is clearly not the case. Depression is much more serious than that. It can take hold of a person just like a virus can: if one’s defenses are weak it can strike and the individual is basically……
My Depression. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://albany.kanopy.com/video/my-depression
The issue of abolitionism came to a head with John Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry in 1859. Brown’s intention was to instigate an armed slave rebellion (Horwitz). Brown and nearly two dozen other men took over a U.S. arsenal at Harpers Ferry in Virginia—but instead of achieving the goal of a slave revolt, the men were caught in a stand-off with U.S. Marines from October 16th to the 18th. Robert E. Lee, ironically, was the commander in charge of retaking the arsenal; Lee would be the commander of the Southern Army just a year and a half later. Other future Confederates assisting in the recapturing of Harpers Ferry from the insurrectionist Brown and his men were Stonewall Jackson and J. E. B. Stuart (Horwitz). This paper will discuss the raid, explain what happened and why, and what the fallout was.
The Reason for the Raid
John Brown was a……
Barney, William L. "Brown, John". The Civil War and Reconstruction: A Student Companion. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc., 2001.
Furnas, J. C. The Road to Harpers Ferry. New York, William Sloane Associates, 1959.
Hoffer, Williamjames Hull. The Caning of Charles Sumner: Honor, Idealism, and the Origins of the Civil War. Johns Hopkins University Press, 2010.
Horwitz, Tony. Midnight Rising: John Brown and the Raid That Sparked the Civil War. Henry Holt and Company, 2011.
McGlone, Robert E. John Brown's War against Slavery. Cambridge, CUP, 2009.
Smith, Ted A., Weird John Brown: Divine Violence and the Limits of Ethics. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2015.
...Hostages Operation Ajax
The war was triggered by the Anglo-Iranian crisis of 1951 to 1953. The Anglo-Iranian Oil Company was largely viewed as a colonial influence bent on controlling the host government and enjoying benefits from the hierarchies that resulted from a society that was divided. However, in 1951, led by campaigns championed by Prime Minister then, Mohammad Mossadeq, Iran managed to nationalize its oil resources. Slightly over two years down the line after the nationalization of its oil, the Iranian Premier was deposed (De Seve, 2020).
When the foreign powers failed to destabilize and abdicate, the British tried to dislocate the premier one more time. Following mass protests and a three-day uprising and bloodshed – the Siyer-Tir on July 21, Mohammad Mossadeq, was granted powers to appoint the chiefs of staff and the minister for war. The British noticed a chance to depose the premier from the differences between the……
Contini, C. (2013). A Realistic View on Iran: International relations and Global Politics. GRIN Verlag.
De Seve, M. (2020). Operation Ajax: The Story of the CIA Coup that Remade the Middle East. Verso Books.
Fowler, R. (2018). More Than a Doctrine: The Eisenhower Era in the Middle East. U of Nebraska Press.
Lee, C. T. (2013). A Cold War Narrative: The Covert Coup of Mohammad Mossadeq, Role of the U.S. Press and Its Haunting Legacies. Senior Theses, Trinity College, Hartford, CT. http://digitalrepository.trincoll.edu/theses/300
Levin, Y. A. (2018). Operation Ajax in the CIA analytics: colonial knowledge in postcolonial age. Samara Journal of Science, 7(2), 200-203.
Luce, D. D. (2017, September 20). The specter of operation AJAX. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2003/aug/20/foreignpolicy.iran
Merica, D., & Hanna, J. (2013). In declassified document, CIA acknowledges role in\\\\\\'53 Iran Coup. CNN News. Retrieved June 15, 2020.
Roosevelt, K. (1979). Countercoup, the Struggle for the Control of Iran. McGraw-Hill Companies.
...Hostages The Political Nature of the Federal Budget Process
The federal budget process is overseen by US Congressmen, who are fundamentally immersed in the political nature of government. As Elwood (2008) notes, members of Congress are influenced in three ways: 1) by money that is used to finance their political campaigns; 2) by obtaining the votes necessary for reelection; and 3) by obtaining expert advice on topics that are of personal importance to them. The federal budget process is particularly impactful on the first two and vice versa. For example, “the ability to funnel money into a congressional district or state provides an excellent opportunity for a legislator to remain in office” (Elwood, 2008, p. 3). This ability creates a conflict of interest among the politicians overseeing the budget process. On the one hand they are tasked with producing a budget resolution and allocating funds based on the duty to……
Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Agency theory: An assessment and review. Academy of management review, 14(1), 57-74.
Elwood, T. W. (2008). Politics of the US Federal Budget Process. International quarterly of community health education, 28(1), 3-12.
Jennings, M. (2008). Business Ethics: Case Studies and Selected Readings. Cengage.
Machold, S., Ahmed, P.K., & Farquhar, S.S. (2007). Corporate Governance and Ethics: A Feminist Perspective. Journal of Business Ethics (2008) 81:665-678.
ProActive Solutions. (2020). Agency theory. Retrieved from http://knowledgegrab.com/learners-zone/study-support/performance-management-review/framework-introduction-to-hrm/agency-theory/
...Hostages What is Cybercrime?
Definition of Cybercrime
Cybercrime is any criminal activity that is conducted using computers or the Internet. As today’s digital natives have the most experience with computers, cybercriminals tend to be of the Millennial generation—i.e., born after 1980. They are young, digitally sophisticated, and able to operate with a degree of professionalism and discipline that allows them to hide their crimes beneath legitimate-looking facades. Spearphishing is one example of a type of cybercrime used by professional criminals to lure victims into traps or sites that have the appearance of legitimacy.
Cybercrime is committed by people who know computer code, understand computer systems and networks, know how to navigate databases, access data storage, get past firewalls, exploit cloud computing services, control the Internet of Things and more. They
How Cybercrime Has Evolved over Time
Computers and the rise of the Internet ushered in the era of cybercrime. IBM’s first……
Computer Hope. (2019). When was the first computer invented? Retrieved from https://www.computerhope.com/issues/ch000984.htm
Crane, C. (2019). 33 alarming cybercrime statistics you should know in 2019. Retrieved from https://www.thesslstore.com/blog/33-alarming-cybercrime-statistics-you-should-know/
Schjølberg, Stein. (2017). The History of Cybercrime (1976-2016). Books on Demand.
Statista. (2020). Global digital population. Retrieved from https://www.statista.com/statistics/617136/digital-population-worldwide/
Taylor, R. W., Fritsch, E. J., Liederbach, J., Saylor, M. R., & Tafoya, W. L. (2019). Cyber crime and cyber terrorism. NY, NY: Pearson.
The USS Cole Bombing in October 2000 was a prelude to the intense focus on the spread of weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) that the FBI took up in earnest one year later in the wake of and in response to 9/11. With the killing of several crewmen and the wounding of several more, the USS Cole Bombing was in reality just one more terrorist incident in an already growing line of attacks (both foreign and domestic) that revealed a pressing need for a counterproliferation strategy. When the USS Cole was hit in Aden harbor, the FBI began focusing on suspects who would later be tied to 9/11 and the spread of terror cells throughout the Middle East.[footnoteRef:2] It was not, of course, the only incident to spark that focus—but it was an important factor in the development of a new counterproliferation strategy that would inevitably become the plan……
Arnold, Aaron and Daniel Salisbury, “The Long Arm,” Belfer Center, 2019. https://www.belfercenter.org/publication/long-arm
Carter, Ashton B. "Overhauling counterproliferation." Technology in Society 26, no. 2-3 (2004): 257-269.
The Commission to Assess the Organization of the Federal Government to Combat the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction. “Combating Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction,” Washington, D.C., 1999.
FBI. “COINTELPRO.” https://vault.fbi.gov/cointel-pro
FBI Counterproliferation Center. “About.” https://www.fbi.gov/about/leadership-and-structure/national-security-branch/fbi-counterproliferation-center
Fischer, Rowena Rege. “Guide to the Study of Intelligence: Counterproliferation,” Journal of U.S. Intelligence Studies 21, no. 1 (Winter 2014-15), 78-82.
Liow, Joseph Chinyong. "The Mahathir administration's war against Islamic militancy: operational and ideological challenges." Australian Journal of International Affairs 58, no. 2 (2004): 241-256.
Manchikanti, Laxmaiah, Jaya Sanapati, Ramsin M. Benyamin, Sairam Atluri, Alan D. Kaye, and Joshua A. Hirsch. "Reframing the prevention strategies of the opioid crisis: focusing on prescription opioids, fentanyl, and heroin epidemic." Pain physician 21, no. 4 (2018): 309-326.
The maritime industry is increasingly moving towards the adoption of systems that rely heavily on digitization, automation, and integration (Hayes, 2016). The extensive use of advanced technological solutions in the maritime industry is driven by the urgent need to maintain the industry in sync with all other industries that seem to have a step forward in adopting technological solutions. As a result of this growth and development in technological solutions, the security of data and other sensitive information has increasingly become a huge concern for the industry (Bueger, 2015). Cybersecurity has become a priority for the maritime industry. With many of the operational and critical system having already been digitized, automated, and integrated, the concern has now shifted to how entities within the maritime industry should implement appropriate procedures and policies to respond to cybersecurity incidents effectively.
Cybersecurity refers to the ability of entities to prepare for possible……
Bowen, B.M. (2011). Measuring the Human Factor of Cyber Security. Rerieved from http://www.cs.columbia.edu/~bmbowen/papers/metrics_hst.pdf
Bueger, C. (2015). What is Maritime Security? Maritime Policy, 53, 159-164.
Fitton, O. P. (2015). The Future of Maritime Cyber Security. Retrieved from https://eprints.lancs.ac.uk/id/eprint/72696/1/Cyber_Operations_in_the_Maritime_Environment_v2.0.pdf
Hadlington, L. (2018). The \\\\\\"Human Factor\\\\\\" in cybersecurity: Exploring the accidental insider. Psychological and Behavioral Examinations in Cyber Security, 4(6), 46-63.
Hareide, O. S. (2018). Enhancing Navigator Competence By Demonstrating Maritime Cyber Security. The Journal of Navigation, 71(5), 1025-1039.
Hayes, C. R. (2016). Maritime Cybersecurity: The Future of National Security. Monterey, California: Naval Post Graduate School.
Herzog, S. (2011). Revisiting the Estonian Cyber Attacks: Digital Threats and Multinational Responses. Journal of Strategic Security, 4(2), 49-60.
Hoffmann, J. (2018). Review of Maritime Transport. New York: UNCTAD.
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