Homelessness in America - Essay Outline
Homelesssness in America
a. Definition of Homelessness
i. Homelessness is the lack of a stable, safe and permanent housing due to lack of income, poor housing policies, and neighborhood gentrification (Dreyer, 2018).
… to lack of income, poor housing policies, and neighborhood gentrification (Dreyer, 2018).
ii. A comprehensive, broad-based definition that can be used consistently for homelessness initiatives does not exist (Yousey & Samudra, 2018).
b. Overview of Homelessness
i. Homelessness is an egregious problem that has existed in the United States since 1980s and attributable to various factors and causes (Dreyer, 2018).
ii. … to various factors and causes (Dreyer, 2018).
ii. Multifaceted and multisectoral approaches are the most suitable interventions to address the growing problem of homelessness.
II. Statistics on Homelessness
a. Lifetime and 1-year Prevalence of Homelessness
i. Lifetime prevalence of homelessness in the United States population is approximately……
Dreyer, B.P. (2018), A Shelter is not a Home: The Crisis of Family Homelessness in the United States, Pediatrics, 142(5) 1-3, httpps://doi.org10.1542/peds.2018-2695 Ly, A. & Latimer, E., (2015), Housing First Impact on Cost and Associated Cost Offsets A review of literature, Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 60(11) 475-487, doi: 10.1177/070674371506001103
Mabhala, M.A., Yohannes, A. & , Griffith, M. (2017), Social Conditions of Becoming Homelessness, Qualitative Analysis of Life Stories of Homelessness People, International Journal for Equity in Health, 16(150), Doi:10.1186/s12939-017-0646-3
Morton et al, (2017), Prevalence and Correlates of Youth Homelessness in the United States, Journal of Adolescent Health, 62, 14-21 Doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2017.10.006
Oppenheimer, S.C., Nurius, P.S. & Green, S. (2018) Homeless History Impact on Health Outcome and Economics and Risk Behaviors Intermediaries: New Insight from Population Data, Families in Society, 97(3), 230-242, Doi:10.1606/1044-3894.2016.97.21
Tsai, J., O’Toole, T. & Kearney, L. K. (2017), Homelessness as a Public Mental Health and Social Problem, New Knowledge and Solution, Psychological Services, 14(2), 113-117, http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/ser0000164
Tsai, J. (2018), Lifetime and 1-year Prevalence of Homelessness in the U.S. Population: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-111, Journal of Public Health 40(1), 65-78, https://doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdx034
Yousey, A. & Samundra, R. (2018) Defining Homelessness in the Rural United States, Online Journal of Rural Research & Policy, 13(4), http://doi.org/10.4148/1936-0487.1094
Weisz, C. & Quinn, D.M. (2017), Stigmatized and identities Psychological Distress and Physical Health, Intersection of homelessness and Race, Stigma and Health 1-6, http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/sah0000093
Health Disparities and Homeless Population
The causes of homelessness are complex but its tragic consequences are very clear. Homelessness is a huge problem in many rural areas, towns, and cities across the world. It is also a public health problem. The homeless … getting preventable diseases, getting co-occurring diseases, and dying premature deaths. In developed countries like the United States and United Kingdom, the phenomenon of homelessness is closely interlinked with that of poverty. Most of the time, the working poor have to work so hard or to work multiple … social determinants is building physical and social environments that bring about good health (Fajardo-Bullón et al, 2019).
Identifying Health Disparities in Homeless Population
Homelessness is linked to great health disparities including higher morbidity, reduced life expectancy, and greater use of emergency hospital services. When viewed via the … higher morbidity, reduced life expectancy, and greater use of emergency hospital……
Andaya, A. (2016). Understanding the Causes Health Disparities among the Homeless. UC Merced Undergraduate Research Journal, 9(1).
Fajardo-Bullón, F., Esnaola, I., Anderson, I., & Benjaminsen, L. (2019). Homelessness and self-rated health: evidence from a national survey of homeless people in Spain. BMC public health, 19(1), 1081.
Koh, H. K., & O’Connell, J. J. (2016). Improving health care for homeless people. Jama, 316(24), 2586-2587.
Plumb J. D. (2000). Homelessness: reducing health disparities. CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l\\\\\\'Association medicale canadienne, 163(2), 172–173.
Homelessness is an issue that has persisted in the United States because of the ever-changing demographic factors and economic circumstances. The composition and size … The composition and size of the homeless population in the country continues to change due to these varying factors. Over the past decade, homelessness has attracted public attention given the dramatic increase in the number and composition of victims. While numerous efforts have been undertaken to address … public attention given the dramatic increase in the number and composition of victims. While numerous efforts have been undertaken to address the issue, homelessness remains a major problem for policymakers and the public. An important element in dealing with the problem of homelessness is understanding victimization and its contributing factors. Through understanding victimization, policymakers and other stakeholders will develop suitable policies and approaches to address homelessness. This paper explores street crime victimization of homeless women and children.……
Bachega, H. (2018, October 8). Homeless in US: A Deepening Crisis on the Streets of America. BBC. Retrieved November 22, 2019, from https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-45442596
Bendix, A. (2019, November 18). The 9 States with the Worst Homelessness Crises Reveal How Bad the Housing Crunch Has Gotten in US Cities. Business Insider. Retrieved November 22, 2019, https://www.businessinsider.com/photos-homelessness-states-worst-crises-2018-11?IR=T
Ellsworth, J.T. (2018, December 3). Street Crime Victimization Among Homeless Adults: A Review of the Literature. Victims & Offenders: An International Journal of Evidence-based Research, Policy and Practice, 14(1), 96-118.
Family & Youth Services Bureau. (2016, June 24). Domestic Violence and Homelessness: Statistics (2016). Retrieved from U.S. Department of Health and Human Services website: https://www.acf.hhs.gov/fysb/resource/dv-homelessness-stats-2016
Norris, S. (2019, September 9). Women Fleeing Abuse Are Being ‘re-traumatized’ by the Housing System. City Metric. Retrieved November 22, 2019, from https://www.citymetric.com/politics/women-fleeing-abuse-are-being-re-traumatised-housing-system-4769
Stanley, J.L., Jansson, A.V., Akinyemi, A.A. & Mitchell, C.S. (2016, November). Characteristics of Violent Deaths Among Homeless People in Maryland, 2003-2011. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 51(5), S260-S266.
Turner, M.M., Funge, S.P. & Gabbard, W.J. (2018). Victimization of the Homeless: Perceptions, Policies, and Implications for Social Work Practice. Journal of Social Work in the Global Community, 3(1), 1-12.
Tyler, K.A. & Beal, M.R. (2010). The High-risk Environment of Homeless Young Adults: Consequences for Physical and Sexual Victimization. Violence and Victims, 25(1), 101-115.
… solely 4 percent to 10 percent of the overall youth population. It is suggested that LGBTC youths are at greater risk of facing homelessness as compared to other youths (Cray et al., 2013). The inference of this is that they are almost 7 times over represented amongst … considered to be the foundation for the family conflict. Notably, family conflict is deemed to be the most underlying reason for all youth homelessness. 50 percent of all teenagers experience a negative reaction from their parents and the family as a whole when they choose to come … superior susceptibility to a variety of general health, mental health, and social difficulties, for instance, sexually transmitted diseases, eating disorders, difficulties in school, homelessness, forced sexual activities, violence and victimization as well as suicide (Higa et al., 2014). These adverse outcomes are not inescapable because of the ……
Bilodeau, B. L., & Renn, K. A. (2005). Analysis of LGBT identity development models and implications for practice. New directions for student services, 2005(111), 25-39.
Cray, A., Miller, K., & Durso, L. E. (2013). Seeking shelter: The experiences and unmet needs of LGBT homeless youth. Washington, DC: Center for American Progress.
Cunningham, M., Pergamit, M., Astone, N., & Luna, J. (2014). Homeless LGBTQ youth. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.
Dank, M., Yahner, J., Madden, K., Bañuelos, I., Yu, L., Ritchie, A., ... & Conner, B. (2015). Surviving the Streets of New York: Experiences of LGBTQ Youth, YMSM and YWSW Engaged in Survival Sex. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.
D'augelli, A. R. (2006). Developmental and contextual factors and mental health among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths. American Psychological Association.
Durso, L. E., & Gates, G. J. (2012). Serving our youth: Findings from a national survey of services providers working with lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth who are homeless or at risk of becoming homeless. Los Angeles: The Williams Institute with True Colors and the Palatte Fund.
Foss, S. (2017). A Guide to Social Work Advocacy for Transgender Adolescents and Young Adults. Texas State University.
Higa, D., Hoppe, M. J., Lindhorst, T., Mincer, S., Beadnell, B., Morrison, D. M., ... & Mountz, S. (2014). Negative and positive factors associated with the well-being of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning (LGBTQ) youth. Youth & Society, 46(5), 663-687.
...Homelessness Good Deeds
During times of crisis, we all have a responsibility to lend support to each other and to provide assistance to those who need it most. At a time when the country is confronting an invisible and unfamiliar foe, the best we can do is become each other’s brother’s keeper. On my part, I have been engaging in good deeds because I believe that this is the right thing to do. These will be highlighted below, under the following Hash Tags:
#Coronavirus #COVID19 #STU #STULeadersForLife #STUWeCare #LeadersForLife
Amongst the most affected by the current pandemic are the homeless. These people lack the social support necessary to secure their safety and wellbeing in periods such as these. Towards this end, I have engaged in the following activities;
· Provision of facemasks and hand sanitizers to the homeless
· Provision of foodstuffs and basic hygiene items to the homeless
Indeterminate sentencing laws allow judges to give convicted felons a window of time rather a specific sentence length. With indeterminate sentencing, the judge provides a minimum and a maximum but defers authority regarding when a prisoner is released (or when probation ends) to other members of the criminal justice system such as parole board members and probation officers. Determinate sentencing is just the opposite: a procedure in which the trial judge does sentence an offender to a specific length of time. Both determinate and indeterminate sentencing have been commonly practiced in the United States, and each of these policies has strengths and drawbacks. While indeterminate sentencing can be helpful in cases where an inmate shows certain signs of rehabilitation, determinate sentencing can be deemed more fair overall.
Pros of Indeterminate Sentencing
Indeterminate sentencing has been hailed for its potential usefulness in promoting rehabilitative models in criminal justice. With an……
Allen, J. (2016). CU rape case sparks debate over Colorado’s indeterminate sentencing law. The Denver Channel. Retrieved from: https://www.thedenverchannel.com/news/local-news/colorados-indeterminate-sentencing-criticized
Baker, J. (2020, Aug 10). Davis sentenced to 15 years in 2017 Wheeling hotel killing. WTOV. Retrieved from: https://wtov9.com/news/local/davis-sentenced-to-15-years-in-2017-wheeling-hotel-killing
Cornell Law School Legal Information Institute (n.d.). Indeterminate sentence. Retrieved from: https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/indeterminate_sentence
Gant, J. & Hussain, D. (2020, 5 Aug). Hero PC Andrew Harper’s mother slams ‘unduly lenient sentences for her son’s killers. Daily Mail. Retrieved from: https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-8592283/Attorney-General-review-jail-terms-handed-three-teenagers-killed-PC-Andrew-Harper.html
Green, S.J. (2020, Aug 6). Brothers sentenced to 40 years in prison for 2016 shooting at Seattle homeless encampment. Bakersfield. Retrieved from: https://www.bakersfield.com/ap/national/brothers-sentenced-to-40-years-in-prison-for-2016-shooting-at-seattle-homeless-encampment/article_5c5d040d-0e0c-532e-9fd7-794232746f5d.html
O’Hear, M.M. (2011). Beyond rehabilitation. 48 Am. Crim. L. Rev. 1247 (2011).
Puzauskas, K. & Morrow, K. (2018). No indeterminate sentencing without parole. 44 Ohio N.U. L. Rev. 263 (2018).
Rhine, E.E., Watts, A. & Reitz, K.R. (2018). Parole boards within indeterminate and determinate sentencing structures. Robina Institute of Law and Criminal Justice. Retrieved from: https://robinainstitute.umn.edu/news-views/parole-boards-within-indeterminate-and-determinate-sentencing-structures
… with negative psychological results and health risk behaviors and conducts such as substance use. Furthermore, when pushed to extreme limits, such as being homelessness, there is a greater likelihood that transgender persons will get involved with substance abuse.
Statistics and Average Ages around Transitioning
There are few … adequate housing, and legal systems. Significantly, these violations can give rise to diminished human capital, greater levels of unemployment, and high poverty levels, homelessness, and detrimental health and mental outcomes encompassing greater rates of depression and self-damaging as compared to cisgender people (Drydakis, 2020).
Transgender individuals who ……
Bockting, W. O., Miner, M. H., Swinburne Romine, R. E., Hamilton, A., & Coleman, E. (2013). Stigma, mental health, and resilience in an online sample of the US transgender population. American journal of public health, 103(5), 943-951.
Bockting, W., Coleman, E., Deutsch, M. B., Guillamon, A., Meyer, I., Meyer III, W., ... & Ettner, R. (2016). Adult development and quality of life of transgender and gender-nonconforming people. Current opinion in endocrinology, diabetes, and obesity, 23(2), 188.
Catelan, R. F., Costa, A. B., & Lisboa, C. S. D. M. (2017). Psychological interventions for transgender persons: a scoping review. International Journal of Sexual Health, 29(4), 325-337.
Divan, V., Cortez, C., Smelyanskaya, M., & Keatley, J. (2016). Transgender social inclusion and equality: a pivotal path to development. Journal of the International AIDS Society, 19, 20803.
Drydakis, N. (2020). Trans People, Transitioning, Mental Health, Life, and Job Satisfaction. Handbook of Labor, Human Resources and Population Economics, 1-22.
Glynn, T. R., & van den Berg, J. J. (2017). A systematic review of interventions to reduce problematic substance use among transgender individuals: A call to action. Transgender Health, 2(1), 45-59.
Grossman, A. H., Haney, A. P., Edwards, P., Alessi, E. J., Ardon, M., & Howell, T. J. (2009). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth talk about experiencing and coping with school violence: A qualitative study. Journal of LGBT Youth, 6(1), 24-46.
Jellestad, L., Jäggi, T., Corbisiero, S., Schaefer, D. J., Jenewein, J., Schneeberger, A., ... & Garcia Nuñez, D. (2018). Quality of life in transitioned trans persons: a retrospective cross-sectional cohort study. BioMed research international, 2018.
...Homelessness Does Criminal Profiling Work or is it Unjustified The Case of Tim Masters
Criminal profiling allows law enforcement to develop their understanding of particular types of crime, criminals, criminal behaviors, and crime-ridden areas. The FBI’s Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program is one data set tool used in criminal profiling (FBI, 2019). However, criminal profiling is not an exact science but rather more of an art and there is a high degree of subjectivity that goes into creating a criminal profile. Thus, when it comes to the criminal profiling of serial killers, there are many factors that must be considered—biological, sociological, environmental, criminological, and psychological inputs. This paper will describe what is involved in the criminal profiling of serial killers, how the process works, who conducts it, what traits of serial killers profiles tend to focus on, and how effective the process is at helping law enforcement agents catch killers.……
Alldredge, J. (2015). The" CSI Effect" and Its Potential Impact on Juror Decisions. Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science, 3(1), 6.
Bonn, S. (2019). How the FBI Profiles Serial Offenders. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/wicked-deeds/201905/how-the-fbi-profiles-serial-offenders
Dogra, T.D. et al. (2012). A psychological profile of a serial killer: A case report. Omega: Journal of Death & Dying 65(4), 299-316.
FBI. (2019). Summary of the Uniform Crime Reporting Program. Retrieved from https://www2.fbi.gov/ucr/killed/2009/aboutucr.html
Karson, M. (2017). Why Profiling Serial Killers Can’t Work. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/feeling-our-way/201711/why-profiling-serial-killers-can-t-work
Miller, L. (2014). Serial killers: I. Subtypes, patterns and motives. Aggression and Violent Behavior 19, 1-11.
Samuel, D. B., & Widiger, T. A. (2007). Describing Ted Bundy's personality and working towards DSM-V. Practice, 27, 20-22.
Sarteschi, C. M. (2016). Serial Murder. In Mass and Serial Murder in America (pp. 45-67). Springer, Cham.
...Homelessness How Hip Hop Followed in the Footsteps of Malcolm X
Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five and the Origins of Hip Hop
This paper examines the manner in which the hip hop grew out of the Civil Rights Movement and became a way for disenfranchised black youths, marginalized by society, to express their thoughts and feelings on a world that did want them to rise up. The history of hip hop and its culture is thus a rich one and a complex one that both celebrates youthful joys and energy while also taking different roads towards instigating a dialogue as well. Some hip hop artists have been thoughtful and have challenged the status quo with lyrics and albums that have provoked discussion in a sober-minded way (such as was the case with Tupac Shakur), while others have been more provocative and have set out to disrupt the status quo……
BBC. “The birth of hip hop.” BBC. https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p04s04nk
Best, Steven, and Douglas Kellner. "Rap, black rage, and racial difference." Enculturation 2.2 (1999): 1-23.
Brown, Jake. Tupac Shakur, (2-Pac) in the Studio: The Studio Years (1989-1996). Phoenix, AZ: Colossus Books, 2005.
Decker, Jeffrey Louis. "The state of rap: Time and place in hip hop nationalism." Social Text 34 (1993): 53-84.
Fluker, Walter. The Stones that the Builders Rejected. Harrisburg, PA: Trinity Press International, 1998.
Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five. “The Message.” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PobrSpMwKk4
Jones, E. Michael. Libido Dominandi: Sexual Liberation and Political Control. South Bend, IN: St. Augustine’s Press, 2000.
Pareles, Jon. “Hip-Hop Is Rock ’n’ Roll, and Hall of Fame Likes It.” The New York Times, 13 March 2007. https://www.nytimes.com/2007/03/13/arts/music/13hall.html
...Homelessness Social Policy Analysis Report
Definition of Social Problem
In recent decades, sex trafficking has become a substantial social problem affecting the whole world and continues to necessitate worldwide collaboration to combat it (Brooks and Heaslip, 2019) entirely. Human trafficking is a violation of the fundamental human rights of men, women, and children all over the world. Based on research conducted by the United Nations, statistics indicated that persons across 106 different nations across the globe had experienced trafficking either for labor or sex, or both. Twenty-eight percent of this statistic comprised of children, with the number of girls surpassing that of boys by 40 percent (Greenbaum, 2017). The United Nations defines sexual traffic to encompass the act of recruiting, transferring, harboring, or receiving of individuals, by way of either threat or through use of force as well as other kinds of intimidation, fraud, trickery, abuse of power or authority, capitalizing……
Alliance to End Slavery and Trafficking. (2017). Summary of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) and Reauthorizations FY 2017. Retrieved from: https://endslaveryandtrafficking.org/summary-trafficking-victims-protection-act-tvpa-reauthorizations-fy-2017-2/
Benoit, C., Smith, M., Jansson, M., Healey, P., & Magnuson, D. (2019). “The prostitution problem”: Claims, evidence, and policy outcomes. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 48(7), 1905-1923.
Brooks, A., & Heaslip, V. (2019). Sex trafficking and sex tourism in a globalized world. Tourism Review of AIEST - International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism, 74(5), 1104-1115. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/TR-02-2017-001
Bruckert, C., & Parent, C. (2002). Trafficking in human beings and organized crime: A literature review (pp. 1-35).
Clawson, H. J., Dutch, N., Solomon, A., & Grace, L. G. (2009). Human trafficking into and within the United States: A review of the literature. Washington, DC: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, US Department of Human and Health Services. Retrieved December 25, 2009.
Greenbaum, V. J. (2017). Child sex trafficking in the United States: Challenges for the healthcare provider. PLoS medicine, 14(11).
International Labour Organization. (2017). Global Estimates of Modern Slavery. Retrieved from: https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---dcomm/documents/publication/wcms_575479.pdf
Kelly, C. (July 30, 2019). 13 sex trafficking statistics that explain the enormity of the global sex trade. USA Today. Retrieved from: https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/investigations/2019/07/29/12-trafficking-statistics-enormity-global-sex-trade/1755192001/
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