A far greater number of US citizens become victims of gang-initiated violence as compared to mass shootings or terrorist attacks. gang member contribute to a disproportionately high percentage of the violence and crimes witnessed in the nation. Roughly two-thousand gang-linked murders are reported across the country per annum, which makes up 13% of overall murders in the nation. America's gang-connected murder rate alone (approximately 2 for every 100,000 individuals) goes beyond the overall rate of murders in almost every nation in the EU … almost every nation in the EU (Pyrooz & Densley, 2018). The FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation) claims that as many as 33,000 motorcycle gang, prison gang, and aggressive street gang are currently offending across the country (FBI, n.d.), several of them being highly organized and advanced. Further, they all resort to violence for … control over localities and boosting their illicit commercial activities, such as……
Alleyne, E., & Wood, J. L. (2013). Gang-related crime: The social, psychological, and behavioral correlates. Psychology, Crime & Law, 19(7), 611-627.
FBI, (n.d.). Gangs. Retrieved from https://www.fbi.gov/investigate/violent-crime/gangs#The-Gang%20Threat on 12 June 2020
Finelli, G. A. (2019). Slash, Shoot, Kill Gang Recruitment of Children, and the Penalties Gangs Face. Family Court Review, 57(2), 243-257.
Hesketh, R. F. (2018). A critical exploration of why some individuals with similar backgrounds do or do not become involved in deviant street groups and the potential implications for their future life choices. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Chester, United Kingdom).
Hesketh, R.F. (2019). Joining gangs: living on the edge?. Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, Vol. 5 No. 4; 280-294.
Higginson, A., Benier, K., Shenderovich, Y., Bedford, L., Mazerolle, L., & Murray, J. (2018). Factors associated with youth gang membership in low?and middle?income countries: a systematic review. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 14(1), 1-128.
Howell, J. C. (2010). Gang Prevention: An Overview of Research and Programs. Juvenile Justice Bulletin. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
Klein, M.W. (1995). The American street gang: Its nature, prevalence, and control. New York: Oxford University Press.
gang are a reality in most cities and neighborhoods. To a large extent, gang thrive on member – effectively meaning that they strive to recruit new member and ensure that those within the ‘family’ stay. Towards this end, gang have been known to prey on various targets – including second-generation immigrants and high school/college students - in an attempt to soar their … have been known to prey on various targets – including second-generation immigrants and high school/college students - in an attempt to soar their member and protect certain interests. New York City has a rich history of gang activity. This text concerns itself with gang activity within New York City. In so doing, it will not only give a concise description of the origin of gang activity in the city, but also highlight key facts relating to gang in the city.
From the onset, it is important……
Asbury, H. (2016). The Gangs of New York: An Informal History of the Underworld. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Chapman, B. (2019). Shootings Rise in New York City, but Overall Crime Stays Low. Retrieved from https://www.wsj.com/articles/shootings-rise-in-new-york-city-but-overall-crime-stays-low-11567633762
Mangual, R.A. (2019). No, NYC can’t afford to stop tracking gang members. Retrieved from https://nypost.com/2019/12/24/no-nyc-cant-afford-to-stop-tracking-gang-members/
Watkins, A. (2019). Why Violence Is Spiking in Pockets of Brooklyn, Even as the City Gets Safer. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2019/05/29/nyregion/murder-rate-nyc.html
gang: member Prevention intervention suppression
There are various strategies that could be adopted in an attempt to reign in the gang member problem. The strategies offered by youth.Gov, a U.S. government resource for the creation and maintenance of sound youth programs, would come in handy … grouped into three main categories, i.e. prevention, intervention, and suppression responses. One strategy relates to strengthening families. It is important to note that “gang member often come from homes where they feel alienated or neglected” (Chaskin 97). It is this feeling and experience of neglect and/or alienation that … or neglected” (Chaskin 97). It is this feeling and experience of neglect and/or alienation that motivates the said youths to seek solace in gang member. Thus, strategies meant to strengthen families would be effective in seeking to prevent gang member. Such strategies could be inclusive of sensitizing families on the various conflict resolution strategies they could……
Chaskin, Robert. Youth Gangs and Community Intervention: Research, Practice, and Evidence. Columbia University Press, 2010.
gang in America have formed the subject of a large number of research works, thereby becoming a growth sector (Sanchez-Jankowski, 2003). The definition of … have formed the subject of a large number of research works, thereby becoming a growth sector (Sanchez-Jankowski, 2003). The definition of the term ‘gang’ is: an ongoing informal or formal group, party, or alliance of at least three individuals whose primary activities include perpetrating at least one … 8) carrying out a grand robbery of a vehicle, vessel, or trailer, in addition to sharing a common sign, symbol, or name, whose member have separately or, as a group, previously or currently participated in some pattern of hang crime (California Department of Justice, 1993).
Classification of … have separately or, as a group, previously or currently participated in some pattern of hang crime (California Department of Justice, 1993).
Classification of gang
Depending on structural……
California Department of Justice. (1993). Gangs 2000: A call to action. Sacramento, California: Department of Justice.
Department of Public Security. (2007). Definition and classification of gangs: Executive summary. Washington, DC: Organization of American States.
Sanchez-Jankowski, M. (2003). Gangs and social change. Theoretical Criminology, 7(2), 191-216. DOI: 10.1177/1362480603007002413.
… time alone to reflect on his misdeeds he would begin to develop the moral resolve to reform himself and become a better contributing member of society. Today, solitary confinement is a controversial option in the state correctional system and not one that is used with the same ……
Clemmer, D. (1940). The prison community. New Braunfels, TX: Christopher Publishing House.
Compton, M. T., Anderson, S., Broussard, B., Ellis, S., Halpern, B., Pauselli, L., . . .Johnson, M. (2017). A potential new form of jail diversion and reconnection to mental health services: II. Demonstration of feasibility. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 35(5–6), 492–500. doi:10.1002/bsl.2319
Corrections Arizona Department. (2020). Retrieved from https://corrections.az.gov/location/110/kingman
Dryburgh, M. (2009). Policy implications of whistle-blowing: The case of Corcoran State Prison. Public Integrity, 11(2): 155-170.
Fantel, H. (1974). William Penn: Apostle of Dissent. NY: William Morrow & Co. Florida Department of Corrections. (2020). Retrieved from
Hensley, J. & Rough, G. (2011). Kingman prison still under scrutiny. Retrieved from http://archive.azcentral.com/news/articles/2011/01/30/20110130kingman-prison-still-under-scrutiny0130.html
HIV among Incarcerated Populations. (2015). CDC. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/group/correctional.html
… other places. A greater number of criminal offenses were categorized, at the federal level, as those calling for a death sentence. Immigration-linked crimes, gang crimes, hate crimes, and sex crimes were defined and categorized as well, under the law (United States Congress, 1994). Furthermore, the Act financed … this corresponds with the growth in utilization of crack cocaine and heroin in the nation. The former drug was quick to become inner-city gang’ choice of drug for trading owing to its inexpensive production and selling price, high addiction, affordability and ease of transport. Although the growth … in violent offenses wasn’t essentially linked to those who consumed the drugs themselves, it was linked to monetary and territorial clashes between different gang involved in the US drug trade (The Establishment, 2016). This served to increase gang’ control in different localities, besides their ability of recruiting new gang member and providing for……
Raymond Derrial Madden, Petitioner-appellant, v. United States of America, Respondent-appellee, 64 F.3d 669 (10th Cir. 1995)
Sepulveda v. United States, 69 F. Supp. 2d 633 (D.N.J. 1999)
United States of America, Plaintiff-appellee, v. Joanne Kwi Ye Estes, Defendant-appellant, 166 F.3d 1218 (9th Cir. 1998)
United States v. Madden, No. 92-6206 (10th Cir. Apr. 20, 1993), WL 332262 Books and article
Moore, R. (2017). The new Jim Crow: Mass incarceration in the age of colorblindness. Macat Library.
United States Congress. (1994). Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. Public law, (103-322).
The Establishment. (2016, April 12). About That Controversial 1994 Crime Bill. A Medium Corporation. Retrieved from https://medium.com/the-establishment/about-that-controversial-1994-crime-bill-c17ccfcc25fa
Besides boxing enthusiasts, few mainstream Americans likely know about – or care about – the challenges that are faced by young minority member, many of whom probably view the sport as their only alternative to a life as a drug-dealing gang member or flipping burgers. While there are some real “Horatio Alger”-type success stories that include minority member, many privileged white Americans also may not realize that real opportunities are not equally available to everyone, a harsh reality that is underscored … support positive social change through public policy by informing lawmakers concerning the challenges that are faced by demographic segments of society, most especially member of minority groups, that are frequently overlooked when formulating new policy initiatives. Despite impressive gains of employment and social mobility opportunities, far too ……
Abrahams, M. (2011, March 10). Boxing proves a hit for French sociologist. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/education/2011/jan/10/improbable-research-boxing-sociologist .
Asselin, M. E. (2009, March-April). Insider research: Issues to consider when doing qualitative research in your own setting. Nurses in Professional Development, 19(2), 99-103.
Burress, C. (2003, December 8). UC’s ‘boxing sociologist’ / Combative French professor spent 3 years in ring. SFGate. Retrieved from https://www.sfgate.com/bayarea/article/UC-s-boxing-sociologist-Combative-French-2509824.php#photo-2684464 .
Creswell, J. W. (2003). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2018). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (5th ed.). Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu " target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
… Americans of 20.44 per 100,000 (Violence Policy Center, 2020). 6,505 out of 7,442 victims were killed with guns. 17% of the killings were gang related. Nearly half of the killings were a result of an argument between the victim and the offender. 71% of the killings were … and Frisk that social workers could advocate for include: 1) focused deterrence, 2) proactive policing aka community-based policing, 3) gun buybacks, and 4) gang intervention and prevention programs.
The specific goals that these alternatives would help to meet are: 1) the reduction of crime within the community; … African American community safer, and help to promote a more positive culture by showing that law enforcement officers want to work with community member and social workers to help redirect people away from lives of violence towards more positive and wholesome outlets like education, careers, athletics and … problem of violence has crept……
Brown, J. (2005). Tupac Shakur, (2-Pac) in the Studio: The Studio Years (1989-1996). Phoenix, AZ: Colossus Books.
Carbado, D. W. (2017). From Stop and Frisk to Shoot and Kill: Terry v. Ohio's Pathway to Police Violence. UCLA L. Rev., 64, 1508.
Howard University. (2020). PHD in social work. Retrieved from https://socialwork.howard.edu/admissions/programs-study/phd-social-work
Jones, N. (2014). “The regular routine”: Proactive policing and adolescent development among young, poor black men. New directions for child and adolescent development, 2014(143), 33-54.
Llewellyn, J. J., Archibald, B. P., Clairmont, D., & Crocker, D. (2013). Imagining success for a restorative approach to justice: Implications for measurement and evaluation. Dalhousie LJ, 36, 281.
Spergel, I., Wa, K., & Sosa, R. (2005). Evaluation of the Mesa Gang Intervention Program (MGIP). School of Social Service Administration, The University of Chicago.
Violence Policy Center. (2020). Black homicide victimization. Retrieved from http://vpc.org/revealing-the-impacts-of-gun-violence/black-homicide-victimization/
… tears the family and community fabric. There's often a second devastating effect that results from the violence. The police frequently have to stop member of the colored community on the streets and run inspections. The outcome is that the community becomes suspicious of the law enforcement authorities. … of the alternative strategies. The philosophical stands on how problems should be solved may also pose a challenge and trigger tension among committee member. It is notable that the overriding challenge, though, has to do with resources for funding the project.
Armstrong, M., & Carlson, J. (2019). Speaking of trauma: The race talk, the gun violence talk, and the racialization of gun trauma. Palgrave Communications, 5(112). https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-019-0320-z
Maxson, C. L., Hennigan, K, and D. C. Sloane. (2003). For the sake of the neighborhood? Civil gang injunctions as a gang intervention tool in Southern California. In Scott H. Decker, Ed. Policing Gangs and Youth Violence. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning
Morris, S. (2018). Mass shootings in the US: There have been 1,624 in 1,870 days. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/ng-interactive/2017/oct/02/america-mass-shootings-gun-violence
Payne, B. K. (2006). Weapon bias: split-second decisions and unintended stereotyping. Curr Directions Psychological Sci, 15(6), 287–291.
Roman, J. K. (2013).Race, justifiable homicide, and stand your ground laws: Analysis of FBI supplementary homicide report data. Retrieved from http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=265405
Schopper, D., Lormand, J. D.,&Waxweiler, R (eds). (2006).Developing policies to prevent injuries and violence: guidelines for policy-makers and planners. Geneva, World Health Organization.
Tate, J., Jenkins, J., Rich, S., Muyskens, J., Elliott, K., Mellnik, T., &Williams, A. (2016).How the Washington Post is examining police shootings in the United States. The Washington Post.
Tita, G. E., Troshynski, E., & Graves, M. (2007). Strategies for reducing gun violence: The role of gangs, drugs, and firearm accessibility. Research Report: National Crime Prevention Centre (NCPC). Retrieved from https://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/rdcng-gn-vlnc/rdcng-gn-vlnc-eng.pdf
Intersection of Faith Nationalism and Environment in Ireland
While terrorist groups are rarely defended by non-member, there is often the sense among objective observers that not all member of a religion that may be said to have “spawned” terrorism are terrorists or sympathetic to terrorism themselves. For instance, not every Muslim ……
Bamford, B. (2005). The Role and Effectiveness of Intelligence in Northern Ireland. Intelligence and National Security, 20(4), 581-607.
Bell, J. B. (2008). The Secret Army: The IRA. London: Transaction Publishers.
IRA Green Book. (1977). Accessed 14 Dec 2015 from https://tensmiths.files.wordpress.com/2012/08/15914572-ira-green-book-volumes-1-and-2.pdf
Maloney, E. (2010). Voices from the Grave: Two Men’s War in Ireland. NY: Faber, Faber.
O’Brien, B. (1999). The Long War: The IRA and Sinn Fein. NY: Syracuse University Press.
Rooney, N. (2007). Violent nationalism in catholic communities: The Provisional IRA and ETA. Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism, 7(3), 64-77.
Shanahan, Timothy. (2008). The Provisional IRA and the Morality of Terrorism. UK: Edinburgh University Press.
Taylor, P. (2001). Brits. UK: Bloomsbury Publishing.
We have over 150,000+ study documents to help you.Sign Up for FREE