Persons in positions of leadership inevitably encounter major ethical dilemmas and in fact make ethical decisions on a daily basis. Interviews with senior executive can reveal the complexities of ethical decision making at the executive level, as personal morals frequently disconnect from the ethical culture governing the organization or the industry’s regulatory climate (Bailey & Shantz, 2018). Bandwagon … shows how personal ethical beliefs clash with the prevailing norms and values in the field. Employee diversity adds to the complications involved in executive ethical decision-making, according to Linden. The predominant ethical challenges usually relate to balancing two equally compelling ethical objectives, or weighing the pros and … his organization to overcome some of its most serious problems. Stock-based compensation has traditionally been used as a source of extrinsic motivation for executive, but research shows how this practice leads to “smooth earnings,” and the artificial elevation of the company’s stock……
Bailey, C. & Shantz, A. (2018). Creating an ethically strong organization. MIT Sloan Management Review. http://ilp.mit.edu/media/news_articles/smr/2018/60101.pdf
Crossan, M., Mazutis, D. & Seijts, G. (2013). In search of virtue. Journal of Business Ethics 113(4): 567-581.
Hatcher, T. (2008). The value of values in the C-suite. In Sims, R.R. & Quatro, S.A. (Eds.) Executive Ethics. Charlotte: IAP, pp. 97-122.
Hoekstra, E., Bell, A. & Peterson, S.R. (2008). Humility in Leadership: Abandoning the Pursuit of Unattainable Perfection. In S.A. Quatro & R. R. Sims (Eds.), Executive Ethics: Ethical Dilemmas and Challenges for the C-Suite. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing, pp. 79-96.
MacDougall, A.E., Bagdarasov, Z. & Buckley, M.R. (2008). Applying a primary risk management model to the C-suite. In Sims, R.R. & Quatro, S.A. (Eds.) Executive Ethics. Second Edition. Charlotte: IAP, pp. 211-234.
Martin, R. (2011). The CEO\\\\'s ethical dilemma in the era of earnings management. Strategy & Leadership 39(6): 43-47.
Schwartz, M.S. (2013). Developing and sustaining an ethical corporate culture: The core elements. Business Horizons 56(1): 39-50.
… a U.S. citizen four days down the line. The hit triggered criticisms of the Trump administration of how he was using his diplomatic, executive powers and ethical judgment in leadership. He was accused of a poorly planned strategy in Iran (Blazakis, 2020). This paper focuses on three … leadership. He was accused of a poorly planned strategy in Iran (Blazakis, 2020). This paper focuses on three important issues; 1) Whether the executive order by President Trump was an effective use of his executive powers, diplomatic strategy and ethical leadership, 2) Whether the killing of General Soleiman amounted to inhibiting the U.S. interest in the region or … significantly, he is the hallmark of what the Iranian state's priorities were in Iraq. The two characters were eliminated with a single strike order by the U.S. leadership. The world was left wondering what would become of IRGC-QF in regional politics, especially……
Jahanbani, N. (2020). Beyond Soleimani: Implications for Iran\\\\\\\\\\\\'s Proxy Network in Iraq and Syria. CTC Perspectives.
Vladeck, S. I. (2004). Emergency Power and the Militia Acts. Yale LJ, 114, 149.
Brands, H. (2019). Why America Can\\\\\\\\\\\\" t Quit the Middle East. Hoover Institution, 21.
Tillman, S. P. (1982). The United States in the Middle East: Interests and Obstacles (Vol. 82). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Terry, J. P. (1986). Countering State-Sponsored Terrorism: A Law-Policy Analysis. Naval L. Rev., 36, 159.
Maogoto, J. N. (2003). War on the enemy: self-defense and state-sponsored terrorism. Melb. J. Int\\\\\\\\\\\\'l L., 4, 406.
Lillich, R. B., & Paxman, J. M. (1976). State Responsibility for Injuries to Aliens Occasioned by Terrorist Activities. Am. U.L. Rev., 26, 217.
Parker, C. & Noack, R. (2020, January 2). Iran has invested in allies and proxies across the Middle East. Here\\\\\\\\\\\\'s where they stand after Soleimani\\\\\\\\\\\\'s death. Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2020/01/03/iran-has-invested-allies-proxies-across-middle-east-heres-where-they-stand-after-soleimanis-death/
… to have a greater influence in society and are more inclined to do so the more independent they perceive these organizations to be.
executive order 13771
Another beneficial way deregulation under the Trump Administration positively impacts nonprofits can be seen with executive order 13771. executive order 13771 calls for a new regulatory budgeting process that will aim to control the overall cost of every agency’s regulations: President Trump wants … cap would be that agencies are capped in terms of public funding—i.e., money they can spend allotted them via Congressional appropriations—and so in order to achieve their own policy ambitions these agencies shift these costs onto nonprofits and other organizations. The EO intends to put a stop ……
Belton, K. & Graham, J. (2019). Trump’s Deregulatory Record: An Assessment at the Two-Year Mark. Retrieved from http://accf.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/ACCF-Report_Trump-Deregulatory-Record-FINAL.pdf
Benson, M. L., Stadler, W. A., & Pontell, H. N. (2019). Harming America: Corporate Crime in a Context of Deregulation. Victims & Offenders, 14(8), 1063-1083.
Brookings Institute. (2020). Tracking deregulation in the Trump era. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/interactives/tracking-deregulation-in-the-trump-era/
Morrow, D. (2017). Deregulation in the Trump Administration will likely impact nonprofits. Retrieved from http://blog.abila.com/deregulation-trump-administration-impacting-nonprofits/
Weaver, H. L. (2018). One for the price of two: the hidden costs of regulatory reform under executive order 13,771. Administrative Law Review, 70(2), 491-512.
… who like Atticus Finch thought to look out for the marginalized and oppressed were vilified by the mob for attempting to upset their order.
The film opens with Atticus Finch agreeing to defend Tom against the charge of rape. Atticus is convinced Tom is innocent and that … fear is unjustified and that Tom is a good man. The hero suspects the real villains are the accusers. They are lying in order to pacify their own anger and pride and outrage. Tom is the victim of their ire and of the town’s ire as well ……
Executive Order 10925. Thecre. https://www.thecre.com/fedlaw/legal6/eo10925.htm
… against terrorism, which continues to date. Before the September 11 attacks, Americans had never experienced a large scale terrorist incident within their country’s order. Moreover, most local and state security agencies had no experience with such attacks and were, therefore, very ill-prepared to respond to them. The … have revealed that the majority of the American public think protecting the country against terrorism ought to be the priority for both the executive and the Congress. For instance, as recently as when President Trump was elected, a national poll revealed that 73 percent of Americans agreed ……
Chanley, V. (2002). Trust in Government in the Aftermath of 9/11: Determinants and Consequences. Political Psychology, 23(3), 469-483. Retrieved May 11, 2020, from https://www.jstor.org/stable/3792588
Dugulin, R., & Niglia, A. (2015, May 17). The private sector in the protection of critical infrastructure - GRI. Global Risk Insights. https://globalriskinsights.com/2015/05/the-private-sectors-vital-role-in-the-protection-of-critical-infrastructure/
Gramlich, J. (2018, September 11). Since 9/11, Americans have seen anti-terrorism policy as a top priority. Pew Research Center. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2018/09/11/defending-against-terrorism-has-remained-a-top-policy-priority-for-americans-since-9-11/
Morgan, D. (2019). Homeland Security Research and Development: Homeland Security Issues in the 116th Congress. Current Politics and Economics of the United States, Canada, and Mexico, 21(1), 43-46.
Moteff, J., Copeland, C., & Fischer, J. (2003, January). Critical infrastructures: What makes an infrastructure critical?. Library of Congress Washington DC Congressional Research Service.
… and its various intelligence agencies. Today, the question of IO is more important than ever before.
From Reagan to Now
President Reagan signed executive order 12333 into law in 1981 and this order was meant to provide for “the effective conduct of United States intelligence activities and the protection of constitutional rights”—though the degree to which … would be made possible has been debated (Brown and Cinquegrana 1985, 98). As Brown and Cinquegrana (1985) observe, 2 Section 2.5 of that order delegates to the Attorney General
the power to approve the use for intelligence purposes, within the United States or against a United States … foreign power (99).
One of the authorized techniques was the warrantless searching of real and personal property. Five years earlier, Ford had issues executive order 11905, which prohibited such searches. Carter in 1978 had issued executive order 12036, which built on the Ford prohibition……
Bailey, Christopher and Susan M. Galich. “Codes of Ethics: The Intelligence Community.” International Journal of Intelligence Ethics 35.2 (2012), 77-99.
Brown, William F., and Americo R. Cinquegrana. \\\\\\\\\\\\"Warrantless Physical Searches for Foreign Intelligence Purposes: Executive Order 12,333 and the Fourth Amendment.\\\\\\\\\\\\" Cath. UL Rev. 35 (1985): 97.
Cantarella, Michele. \\\\\\\\\\\\"Intelligence ethics in the digital age.\\\\\\\\\\\\" (2016).
Congressional Research Service, “CIA Ethics Education: Background and Perspectives” (2018).
Ferrari, Rachel. \\\\\\\\\\\\"Moral Relativism and Dangerous Ethical Dilemmas in the US Intelligence Community.\\\\\\\\\\\\" (2018).
Ford, Christopher M. \\\\\\\\\\\\"Intelligence Demands in a Democratic State: Congressional Intelligence Oversight.\\\\\\\\\\\\" Tul. L. Rev. 81 (2006): 721.
Goldman, Jan. \\\\\\\\\\\\"Teaching About Intelligjence and Ethics.\\\\\\\\\\\\" Journal of US Intelligence Studies 20, no. 2 (2013): 79.
Hayes, Jonathan. \\\\\\\\\\\\"The Cinema of Oliver Stone: Art, Authorship and Activism by Ian
… the President faces in the US: he must abide by the laws of the constitution, yet he can also rule by edict with executive order, so long as they are not challenged and overturned by the Supreme Court (Lumen, 2020).
In conclusion, on the surface it may seem ……
Brookings Institute. (2013). Kings for all seasons. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/Resilience-Arab-Monarchies_English.pdf
Katz, N. (2019). How super pacs shape u.s. Elections with advertisements that portraym candidates in ways publicly identified campaign ads often avoid. Retrieved from https://scholars.org/contribution/how-super-pacs-shape-us-elections-advertisements-portray-candidates-ways-publicly
Lumen. (2020). Forms of government. Retrieved from https://courses.lumenlearning.com/atd-herkimer-introsociology/chapter/reading-forms-of-government/
Soskis, B. (2017). George Soros and the Demonization of Philanthropy. Retrieved from https://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2017/12/soros-philanthropy/547247/
… Manager and serves as the national authority for coordination, de-confliction, and evaluation of clandestine HUMINT operations across the IC, consistent with existing laws, executive order, and interagency agreements” (2). The Overview of the United States Intelligence Community for the 111th Congress (2009) was written to give Congress a ……
Arnold, A. and D. Salisbury. The Long Arm, 2019. Retrieved from https://www.belfercenter.org/publication/long-arm
Barker, Michael J. \\\\\\"Democracy or polyarchy? US-funded media developments in Afghanistan and Iraq post 9/11.\\\\\\" Media, Culture & Society 30, no. 1 (2008): 109-130.
Best, Richard A. Intelligence to Counter Terrorism: Issues for Congress. Congressional Research Service: CRS Report for Congress, 2002.
Carter, Ashton B. \\\\\\"Overhauling counterproliferation.\\\\\\" Technology in Society 26, no. 2-3
Crumpton, Henry A. The art of intelligence: lessons from a life in the CIA\\\\\\'s clandestine service. Penguin, 2013.
Hersh, Seymour. Selective Intelligence. The New Yorker, 2003. http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2003/05/12/selective-intelligence
McCormick, G. H., & Owen, G. “Security and coordination in a clandestine organization.” Mathematical and Computer Modelling, 31, no. 6-7 (2000), 175-192.
… Fortune 500 are borrowing at extremely low (historically low) interest rates to buy back their own shares and thus inflate shareholder value. Many executive sign off on share buybacks instead of putting the money to good use, as in research and development, because they themselves have boatloads … want to sell and they know that the smart money has been leaving the market for a while now (Szala, 2019). If the executive, who are often compensated with company shares, want to rake in the millions of dollars that they are potentially sitting on in terms … been banned should now be allowed. While corporate share buybacks had been banned when Friedman made his comments, his comments made more sense. executive knew back then that in order to maximize shareholder value they had to deliver as leaders of the company and grow the company through investment in the company, through……
Augustine. (n.d.). Commentaries on Sermon on the Mount. http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/16011.htm
Chen, J. (2019). Market Milestones as the Bull Market Turns 10. Retrieved from https://www.investopedia.com/market-milestones-as-the-bull-market-turns-10-4588903
Egan, M. (2018). Tax cut triggers $437 billion explosion of stock buybacks. Retrieved from https://money.cnn.com/2018/07/10/investing/stock-buybacks-record-tax-cuts/index.html
Henrich, S. (2019). Unholy alliance. Retrieved from https://northmantrader.com/2019/11/30/unholy-alliance/
Laux, C., & Leuz, C. (2010). Did fair-value accounting contribute to the financial crisis?. Journal of economic perspectives, 24(1), 93-118.
Light, L. (2019). More than Half of All Stock Buybacks are Now Financed by Debt. Here’s Why That’s a Problem. Retrieved from https://fortune.com/2019/08/20/stock-buybacks-debt-financed/
Mullen, C. (2019). People want to buy \\\\\\'local\\\\\\' food, but they\\\\\\'re not sure what it means. Retrieved from https://www.bizjournals.com/bizwomen/news/latest-news/2019/05/people-want-to-buy-local-food-but-theyre-not-sure.html?page=all
Putka, G. (2019). Insiders are selling. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/economy/company-insiders-are-selling-stock-during-buyback-programs-and-making-additional-profits-when-stock-prices-jump-and-its-legal/2019/11/06/fc592f58-e493-11e9-a331-2df12d56a80b_story.html
… And yet here we are: so little is the respect shown to the Constitution and to the spirit of the law that today’s executive branch decision makers believe the law is whatever they say it is and that the lawyers will justify whatever they say it is … American in the ability of the Constitution to protect him from tyranny any longer. By taking the law into its own hands, the executive offices at local, state and federal levels seek to circumvent the actual law of the land and create for themselves the ability to … in the person of JoJo White. The Constitution itself safeguards and protects the right to privacy and the right to liberty of Americans—yet executive offices in the US are trampling upon these rights……
Allen v. Harrison (2016). https://law.justia.com/cases/oklahoma/supreme-court/2016/111877.html
Baker, Sinead. “The architect of Sweden's controversially lax coronavirus response says he thinks it's working, and that the capital city is already benefiting from herd immunity.” Business Insider, 2020. https://www.businessinsider.com/coronavirus-sweden-defends-plan-not-to-lock-down-immunity-2020-4
C&A Carbone, Inc. v. Town of Clarkstown, N.Y., 511 U.S. 383 (1994). https://www.oyez.org/cases/1993/92-1402
District of Columbia v. Heller (2008). Retrieved from https://www.oyez.org/cases/2007/07-290
Fox 2. “Alleged fraudulent COVID-19 treatments spark FBI raid of Shelby Twp medical spa.” Fox 2, 2020. https://www.fox2detroit.com/news/alleged-fraudulent-covid-19-treatments-spark-fbi-raid-of-shelby-twp-medical-spa
Jacobson v. Massachusetts, 197 U.S. 11 (1905). https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/197/11/
Roe v. Wade (1973). https://www.oyez.org/cases/1971/70-18
Zucht v. King (1922). https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/260/174/
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