Emergency Response Essays (Examples)

Study Document

Hurricane Maria And Puerto Rico S Emergency Management

Pages: 11 (3177 words) Sources: 5 Document Type:Research Paper Document #:67675163

… obstructed by debris, flooding made other areas inaccessible, and hospitals were overwhelmed (de Arzola, 2018). It was in this environment that Puerto Rico’s emergency Management had to act. This paper will discuss the preparation, planning and execution of Puerto Rico’s response and show where the island failed and where it succeeded.
The Puerto Rico emergency Management Agency only had in place a very general emergency response plan in the case of hurricanes. The general response plan essentially served as a guide for various organizations and agencies in terms of what they needed to do in the event of … needed to do in the event of a hurricane. It did not list specific steps or detailed instructions on action items or how response should proceed, in what order, who should lead, how the overall response should be organized, and so on. It was a plan that essentially was……



Acevedo, N. (2018). Puerto Rico lacked disaster planning, communications strategy, hurricane study found. Retrieved from https://www.nbcnews.com/storyline/puerto-rico-crisis/puerto-rico-lacked-disaster-planning-communications-strategy-hurricane-study-found-n904866

Achenbach, J. & Hernandez, A. (2017). FEMA administrator: Puerto Rico’s politics, lack of unity, hindering hurricane response. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/fema-administrator-puerto-ricos-politics-lack-of-unity-hindering-hurricane-response/2017/10/09/f1711996-ad10-11e7-9e58-e6288544af98_story.html?noredirect=on&utm_term=.eef2e6bc0e3e

Amnesty International. (2018). Puerto Rico a year after Hurricane Maria. Retrieved from  https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/research/2018/09/puerto-rico-a-year-after-hurricane-maria/ 

Bomey, N. (2017). Hurricane Maria halts crucial drug manufacturing in Puerto Rico, may spur shortages. Retrieved from  https://www.usatoday.com/story/money/2017/09/22/hurricane-maria-pharmaceutical-industry-puerto-rico/692752001/ 

CDC. (2019). PHEP. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/cpr/epf/docs/PuertoRico.pdf de Arzola, O. R. (2018). Emergency Preparedness and Hurricane Maria: The Experience of a Regional Academic Medical Center in Southwest Puerto Rico. Journal of Graduate Medical Education,10(4), 477-480. Florido, A. (2018). Government Lawyer Says Puerto Rico's Hurricane Response Plan 'Does Not Exist'. Retrieved from  https://www.npr.org/2018/10/30/662345336/government-lawyer-says-puerto-ricos-hurricane-response-plan-does-not-exist 

McMahon, C. (2018). Double down on the Jones Act? Journal of Maritime Law & Commerce, 49(2), 153-195.

Samaan, J. L., & Verneuil, L. (2009). Civil–Military Relations in Hurricane Katrina: a case study on crisis management in natural disaster response. Humanitarian Assistance: Improving US-European Cooperation, Center for Transatlantic Relations/Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD/Global Public Policy Institute, Berlin, 413-432.

Study Document

Emergency Managers And Climate Risk

Pages: 7 (2056 words) Sources: 6 Document Type:Essay Document #:49338362

… current changes in the climate are transitory and are simply part of the earth’s natural systems. Against this backdrop, it is clear that emergency managers face a number of significant challenges in preparing for climate change-associated risks, including most especially the need to overcome misguided and misinformed … are informed about and planning for ALL high risk hazards, climate risks included?” To this end, an examination of the current issues facing emergency managers planning for climate risks is followed by a discussion concerning some success stories in planning for climate risks as well as a … a description concerning how these successes were achieved. Finally, an assessment concerning how this information can be applied in a career as an emergency manager is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning climate risks and emergency management in the paper’s conclusion.
Review and Discussion
What issues current emergency……



Edwards, F. L. (2011, Spring). Symposium: Preparing for climate change. The Public Manager, 40(1), 20-25.

IPCC Working Group II. (2014). Assessing and managing the risks of climate change. Retrieved from https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/2018/03/WGIIAR5_SPM_Top_Level_ Findings-1.pdf.

Labadie, J. R. (2011). Emergency managers confront climate change. Sustainability, 3, 1250-1264.

Leven, R. & Goldstein, Z. (2019). Kentucky is among the states blocking climate action. As weather gets more extreme, its residents — and U.S. taxpayers — are paying a price. Public Integrity. Retrieved from  https://publicintegrity.org/environment/one-disaster-away/a-dangerous-disconnect-disaster-prone-states/ .

Mickus, J. (2017, June 1). A Sugar Creek chronicle: Observing climate change from a Midwestern woodland. Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith, 69(2), 110-114.

The Nature Conservancy. (2020). Pennsylvania climate solutions. Retrieved from https://www. nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/pennsylvania/stories-in-pennsylvania/pennsylvania-climate-solutions/.

Study Document

Hurricane Katrina Military Response

Pages: 4 (1256 words) Sources: 3 Document Type:Essay Document #:19776713

… to know what steps to take to respond to the various needs of the people at the time (Samaan & Verneuil, 2009). The emergency operations center (EOC) was more of a liability than an asset as it had not been trained for such a disaster either. A … center (EOC) was more of a liability than an asset as it had not been trained for such a disaster either. A National response Plan had not been developed nor was there a National Incident Management System, which meant FEMA was not ready to act (Lewis, 2009; … National Incident Management System, which meant FEMA was not ready to act (Lewis, 2009; Select Bipartisan Committee to Investigate the Preparation for and response to Hurricane Katrina, 2006). Thus, it was basically up to the military to provide assistance, and since the military—particularly the U.S. Coast Guard … operations that FEMA and the……



The Brookings Institution. (2007). 9/11, Katrina and the future of interagency disaster response. Retrieved from  https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/20070529.pdf 

E-PARCC Collaborative Governance Initiative. (2008). Collaboration Amid Crisis: The Department of Defense During Hurricane Katrina Teaching Note. Retrieved from  https://www.maxwell.syr.edu/uploadedFiles/parcc/eparcc/cases/Moynihan-%20Teaching%20Notes.pdf 

Lewis, D. E. (2009). Revisiting the administrative presidency: Policy, patronage, and agency competence. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 39(1), 60-73.

Philipps, D. (2017). Seven hard lessons responders to Harvey learned from Katrina. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2017/09/07/us/hurricane-harvey-katrina-federal-responders.html

Samaan, J. L., & Verneuil, L. (2009). Civil–Military Relations in Hurricane Katrina: a case study on crisis management in natural disaster response. Humanitarian Assistance: Improving US-European Cooperation, Center for Transatlantic Relations/Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD/Global Public Policy Institute, Berlin, 413-432.

Select Bipartisan Committee to Investigate the Preparation for and Response to Hurricane Katrina. (2006). A failure of initiative. Retrieved from  http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/a257.g.akamaitech.net/7/257/2422/15feb20061230/www.gpoaccess.gov/katrinareport/mainreport.pdf 

Study Document

Formulating An Effective National Response To Ebola In Nigeria

Pages: 17 (5038 words) Sources: 20 Document Type:Research Paper Document #:83371879

… infections that caused more than 11,000 deaths, primarily in West Africa, but the disease has the potential to spread worldwide unless first responders, emergency management managers and the health care community take aggressive steps to identify infections and contain outbreaks. The main purpose of this study is … the most difficult to manage to date), each with the potential of escalating into a worldwide pandemic (Brown, 2015). Therefore, national and local emergency managers must develop a comprehensive understanding of the etiology of this disease, its course and what steps should be taken in response to confirmed cases in order to contain outbreaks when they occur and to educate citizens to prevent the spread of rumors that can … a troubling situation that directly relates to the rationale in support of this study as described below.
Rationale of the study
Developing effective response to the Ebola virus disease requires a……



Allam, M. F. (2014, September). Ebola hemorrhagic fever: Case fatality rate 90%? Central European Journal of Public Health 22(3), 207-210.

Allam, M. F. & Vonka, V. (2015, March). Ebola virus disease: Temperature checks for travelers? Central European Journal of Public Health, 23(1), 84.

Brand, J. E. & Stela, D. (2014, October). Ebola is here: Knowledge, identification, and appropriate infection control are key. American Nurse Today, 9(10), 37-39.

Brown, G. (2015, Winter). Ebola in America: An epidemic or a pandemic? ABNF Journal, 26(1), 3-5.

Ebola. (2019). Doctors without Borders. Retrieved from https://www.doctorswithout borders.org/what-we-do/medical-issues/ebola.

Ebola outbreak. (2019). U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from  https://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/history/2014-2016-outbreak/index.html .

Ebola virus disease. (2019). U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from  https://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/index.html .

Hancock, M. (2019, September). After Ebola. African Business, 422, 56-58.

Study Document

Suicide Prevention Intervention In The Emergency Department

Pages: 11 (3348 words) Sources: 7 Document Type:Essay Document #:74237246

Lack of Mental Treatment and Support
Introduction and Overview
emergency departments (EDs) can play a major role in reducing the risk and occurrence of suicide, self-harm and harm caused to others by taking … Center for Mental Health Crisis and is located inside Main St Hospital, and patients from all over the county are processed through the emergency Room. At Legacy, patients will be screened using the Columbia Assessment to see whether they are currently suicidal, homicidal or a danger to … because as Olfson, Marcus and Bridge (2013) point out, “each year in the United States, roughly two-thirds of a million patients present to emergency departments for the treatment of deliberate self-harm” (p. 1442). These patients are, moreover, at an elevated and very high risk of suicide (Cooper … care and special treatment because of the fact that they are at higher risk for suicide than other patients. Such……



Appleby, L., Morriss, R., Gask, L., Roland, M., Lewis, B., Perry, A., ... & Davies, L. (2000). An educational intervention for front-line health professionals in the assessment and management of suicidal patients (The STORM Project). Psychological medicine, 30(4), 805-812.

Belmont Report. (1979). Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human

Subjects of Research The National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Retrieved from  https://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/regulations-and-policy/belmont-report/index.html 

Browne, V., Knott, J., Dakis, J., Fielding, J., Lyle, D., Daniel, C., ... & Virtue, E. (2011). Improving the care of mentally ill patients in a tertiary emergency department: development of a psychiatric assessment and planning unit. Australasian Psychiatry, 19(4), 350-353.

Burnette, C., Ramchand, R., & Ayer, L. (2015). Gatekeeper training for suicide prevention: A theoretical model and review of the empirical literature. Rand health quarterly, 5(1).

Callaghan, P., Eales, S., Coates, T., & Bowers, L. (2003). A review of research on the structure, process and outcome of liaison mental health services. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 10(2), 155-165.

Chatterjee, R. (2018). A Simple Emergency Room Intervention Can Help Cut Suicide Risk. Retrieved from  https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2018/07/11/628029412/a-simple-emergency-room-intervention-can-help-cut-future-suicide-risk 

Cooper, J., Kapur, N., Webb, R., Lawlor, M., Guthrie, E., Mackway-Jones, K., & Appleby, L. (2005). Suicide after deliberate self-harm: a 4-year cohort study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(2), 297-303.

Study Document

Incident Command System ICS

Pages: 9 (2818 words) Sources: 7 Document Type:Essay Document #:51934248

Introduction to the Incident Command System (ICS)
The Incident Command System (ICS) is a standardized organization model or method for incident response and management during disasters. The system is made up of standard management and leadership hierarchy procedures, including processes meant to support various types … to support various types of incidents. It does not just respect jurisdictional and agency authority, but also supports synchronized efforts among different disaster response and management teams and agencies. ICS supports fast, effective and efficient development of universal planning processes and management of facilities, personnel, communication, and … authorities agree upon, personnel are trained in a common language and processes, and tasks assigned to each. The ICS system ensures that disaster response teams experience increased organization from the initial phases of a disaster all the way to its conclusion (Lutz and Lindell, 2008).
The ICS … and Lindell, 2008).
The ICS system was developed……



AmeriCorps St. Louis. (2016). “Missouri Winter Flooding 2016.” Retrieved from https://www. americorps-stl.org/our-teams/emergency-response-team/disaster-deployment-archive/missouri-winter-flooding-2016/.

Buck, Dick A., Joseph E. Trainor, and Benigno E. Aguirre. (2006). “A Critical Evaluation of the Incident Command System and NIMS.” Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, 3(3).

Bigley, Gregory A. and Karlene H. Roberts. (2001). “The Incident Command System: High-Reliability Organizing for Complex and Volatile Task Environments.” Academy of Management Journal, 44(6): 1281-1299.

Butterfield, Karen. (2016, January 21). “AmeriCorps Helping Flood Victims Find Place to Stay.” The Missourian. Retrieved from  http://www.emissourian.com/local_news/washington/americorps-helping-flood-victims-find-place-to-stay/article_56f75bab-87de-5198-843e-bdfdb8229b5a.html .

Cardwell, Michael D. and Patrick T. Cooney. (2000). “Nationwide Application of the Incident Command System: Standardization Is the Key.” FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 69.10: 10-16.

Cole, Dana. (2000). The Incident Command System: A 25-Year Evaluation by California Practitioners. National Fire Academy.

Corporation for National and Community Service (CNCS). (2014). “Disaster Response Framework.” Retrieved from  http://www.nationalservice.gov/sites/default/files/documents/CNCS%20DSU%20  Disaster%20Response%20Framework.pdf.

Dynes, Russell Rowe. (1970). Organized Behavior in Disaster. Lexington, MA: Heath Lexington.

Study Document

Public Private Partnerships And Critical Infrastructure

Pages: 1 (331 words) Sources: 1 Document Type:Essay Document #:35083794

… and critical infrastructure across the country.
An example of public-private partnerships toward protection of U.S. critical infrastructure is evident in the field of emergency management. emergency management is a critical infrastructure that affects nearly all aspects of homeland security. Private sector organizations have increasingly partnered with the government in … critical infrastructure that affects nearly all aspects of homeland security. Private sector organizations have increasingly partnered with the government in various aspects of emergency management as part of public-private partnerships. Such partnerships are geared toward improving efforts in emergency response and recovery in the aftermath of a disaster. Moreover, they focus on enhancing the nation’s emergency prevention and mitigation capabilities. In the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks, the Department of Homeland Security entered into a partnership with the private ……


Works Cited

Brooks, Chuck. “Public Private Partnerships And The Cybersecurity Challenge Of Protecting Critical Infrastructure.” Forbes, Forbes Magazine, 6 May 2019,  https://www.forbes.com/sites/cognitiveworld/2019/05/06/public-private-partnerships-and-the-cybersecurity-challenge-of-protecting-critical-infrastructure/#764fd8255a57 .

Busch, Nathan E, and Austen D Givens. “Public-Private Partnerships in Homeland Security: Opportunities and Challenges.” Homeland Security Affairs, vol. 8, no. 18, Oct. 2012, https://www.hsaj.org/articles/233.

Study Document

Weapons Of Mass Destruction WMD Antifa

Pages: 13 (3787 words) Sources: 12 Document Type:Research Paper Document #:67320498

… ways to hack and take over systems of targets?
The National Guard is a military unit that is part of the CBRN response Enterprise. Its mission and capabilities in response to a CBRN attack focus mainly on search and rescue operations. For instance, if a bomb is used in an urban area, the ……



Chatfield, A. T., Reddick, C. G., & Brajawidagda, U. (2015, May). Tweeting propaganda, radicalization and recruitment: Islamic state supporters multi-sided twitter networks. In Proceedings of the 16th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research (pp. 239-249).

Christenson, G. (2015). CBRN response. National Guard Bureau.

Freberg, K., Graham, K., McGaughey, K., & Freberg, L. A. (2011). Who are the social media influencers? A study of public perceptions of personality. Public Relations Review, 37(1), 90-92.

Garellek, A. (2016, March 4). The ISIS WMD Threat. The Cipher Brief. Retrieved from  https://www.thecipherbrief.com/article/middle-east/isis-wmd-threat 

Jennings, P. (2006). Miami port poses serious risks. Retrieved from  https://abcnews.go.com/WNT/story?id=131634&page=1 

Johnston, W.R. (2016, November 30). Summary of historical attacks using chemical or biological weapons. The Johnston Archive. Retrieved from  http://www.johnstonsarchive.net/terrorism/chembioattacks.html 

Klein, A. (2019). From Twitter to Charlottesville: Analyzing the Fighting Words Between the Alt-Right and Antifa. International Journal of Communication, 13, 22.

Maras, M-H. (2014). Transnational Security. Florida: CRC Press.

Study Document

Cyber Espionage

Pages: 7 (2040 words) Sources: 5 Document Type:Research Paper Document #:12891464

… Strategic Deterrence”, Journal of Strategic Security 4, no. 2 (2011):1] [2: Atul Agarwal & CERT-IN, “Cyber Espionage, Infiltration and Combating Techniques”, Indian Computer emergency response Team, 2013. https://www.cert-in.org.in/Downloader?pageid=5&type=2&fileName=CIPS-2013-0128.pdf]
Background Information
Cyber espionage has become one of the most important and complex international problem in today’s world. It is … will, thus, lead to a valid conclusion as the themes that will be supported by most respondents will be treated as the general response.
To identify an appropriate representative sample, the researcher will utilize purposive sampling approach. Individuals within the researcher’s professional networks will be contacted and ……



Agarwal A. & CERT-IN. “Cyber Espionage, Infiltration and Combating Techniques.” Indian Computer Emergency Response Team, 2013.  https://www.cert-in.org.in/Downloader?pageid=5&type=2&fileName=CIPS-2013-0128.pdf 

Banks, W.C. “Cyber Espionage and Electronic Surveillance: Beyond the Media Coverage.” Emory law Journal 66, (2017).

Georgieva, I. “The Unexpected Norm-Setters: Intelligence Agencies in Cyberspace.” Contemporary Security Policy (2019).

Hjortdal, M. “China’s Use of Cyber Warfare: Espionage Meets Strategic Deterrence.” Journal of Strategic Security 4, no. 2 (2011).

Libicki, M. “The Coming of Cyber Espionage Norms.” 9th International Conference on Cyber Conflict, 2017.  https://ccdcoe.org/uploads/2018/10/Art-01-The-Coming-of-Cyber-Espionage-Norms.pdf 

National Counterintelligence and Security Center. “Foreign Economic Espionage in Cyberspace.” Office of the Director of National Intelligence, 2018.  https://www.dni.gov/files/NCSC/documents/news/20180724-economic-espionage-pub.pdf 

Rubenstein, D. “Nation State Cyber Espionage and its Impacts.” Washington University in St. Louis, December 2014.  https://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/cse571-14/ftp/cyber_espionage/ 

Weissbrodt, D. “Cyber-Conflict, Cyber-Crime, and Cyber-Espionage.” Minnesota Journal of International Law 22, no. 2 (2013).

Study Document

Public Safety And Public Relations

Pages: 7 (2022 words) Sources: 9 Document Type:Essay Document #:36972565

… department is currently in charge of policing a city populated by 8.5 million individuals; its responsibilities include public safety (various forms), law enforcement, emergency response, traffic management, and counterterrorism. Over the last twenty- five years, the NYPD has ensured immense drops in the property as well as violent … and risk management, a fixed Scientific Panel or Committee must be established, capable of advising local, state, and national governments on public health emergency management, such as:
· Monitoring of risk factors which may be expected to result in extreme toxicant exposures;
· Maintenance…[break]…conditions, which result in ……



Achim, A. C. (2014). Risk management issues in policing: from safety risks faced by law enforcement agents to occupational health. Procedia Economics and Finance, 15, 1671-1676.

Bornstein, A. (2005). Antiterrorist policing in New York City after 9/11: Comparing perspectives on a complex process. Human Organization, 64(1), 52-61. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/44127004?seq=1

Buyantseva, L. V., Tulchinsky, M., Kapalka, G. M., Chinchilli, V. M., Qian, Z., Gillio, R., et al. (2007). Evolution of lower respiratory symptoms in New York police officers after 9/11: A prospective longitudinal study. J Occup Environ Med, 49, 310–17.

Homeland Security. (2005). Grand reform: The faster and smarter funding for first responders. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Lippmann, M., Cohen, M. D., & Chen, L-C. (2015). Health effects of World Trade Center (WTC) Dust: An unprecedented disaster with inadequate risk management. Crit Rev Toxicol, 45(6), 492-530. DOI: 10.3109/10408444.2015.1044601

NYPD. (2020). About NYPD. Retrieved from  https://www1.nyc.gov/site/nypd/about/about-nypd/about-nypd-landing.page 

OHS. (2008). Occupational Health and Safety Code of Practice. Australian Government.

Vault. (2020). Overview. Retrieved from  https://www.vault.com/industries-professions/industries/public-safety

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