… However, the two articles differ in the negative stimuli being researched. Cullen, Unnever, Hartman, Turner, and Agnew (2008) is analyzing the impact of bullying while Watts and McNulty (2013) is analyzing the impact of childhood abuse. Both articles are looking at the linkage between the negative stimuli … between the negative stimuli and the development of criminal or delinquent behavior. Both authors have managed to demonstrate there is direct like between bullying and development of criminal behavior and between childhood abuse and criminal behavior development. The strain that is being experienced by the children or … deviant behavior has been well articulated by other researchers and the two articles have managed to create a link that demonstrates that with bullying and childhood abuse, a person does develop anger that will lead them towards an escape through criminal or delinquent behavior. Family-based strains have … gender, community, and societal differences……
Agnew, R. (2002). Experienced, vicarious, and anticipated strain: An exploratory study on physical victimization and delinquency. Justice Quarterly, 19(4), 603-632.
Agnew, R. (2007). Pressured into crime: An overview of general strain theory. Los Angeles,CA: Roxbury.
Cullen, F. T., Unnever, J. D., Hartman, J. L., Turner, M. G., & Agnew, R. (2008). Gender, bullying victimization, and juvenile delinquency: A test of general strain theory. Victims and Offenders, 3(4), 346-364.
Warner, B. D., & Fowler, S. K. (2003). Strain and violence: Testing a general strain theory model of community violence. Journal of Criminal Justice, 31(6), 511-521.
Watts, S. J., & McNulty, T. L. (2013). Childhood abuse and criminal behavior: Testing a general strain theory model. Journal of interpersonal violence, 28(15), 3023-3040.
Cyberbullying Essay Outline
A. Bullying involves an imbalance of power between the victim and the bully.
B. Bullying is more than just isolated incidents of negative behavior; it requires repetitive behavior.
C. Cyberbullying occurs electronically, via the internet, cell phones, and social media.
II. Imbalance of power
A. Bullies have some type of power over victims.
… are different ways that bullies can exert power over victims.
1. Social power
2. Financial power
3. Sexual power
4. Group power
C. Bullying cannot be mutual, but bullies and victims can switch roles over time.
III. Bullying is repetitive.
A. Not all mean actions are bullying.
B. To qualify as bullying, behaviors have to be repetitive.
C. Not all acts of bullying have to be committed by one bully to be considered part of a repetitive pattern of bullying.
IV. Cyberbullying occurs electronically.
A. Cyberbullying can occur several ways:
Bazarova, Natalie. (14 May 2018). Key Questions in the Fight Against Cyberbullying. Psychology Today. https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/social-media-stories/201805/key-questions-in-the-fight-against-cyberbullying . Accessed 16 July 2020.
Ben-Joseph, Elena Pearl. (April 2018). Cyberbullying. TeensHealth. https://kidshealth.org/en/teens/cyberbullying.html . Accessed 16 July 2020.
Scheff, Sue. (29 November 2019). Adult Cyberbullying Is More Common Than You Think. Psychology Today. https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/shame-nation/201911/adult-cyberbullying-is-more-common-you-think . Accessed 16 July 2020.
John, Ann et al., (2018). Self-Harm, Suicidal Behaviors, and Cyberbullying in Children and Young People: Systematic Review. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 20(4): e129 DOI: 10.2196/jmir.9044.
Oakes, Kelly. (15 September 2019). Why Children Become Bullies at School. BBC.com. https://www.bbc.com/future/article/20190913-why-some-children-become-merciless-bullies . Accessed 16 July 2020.
The negative effects of social media use on girls can be generally grouped into three categories: (a) body image pressures; (b) online bullying; and, (c) adverse responses to anthropogenic and natural disasters, including global pandemics and each of these effects is discussed in turn below.
Body … mental health issues related to an idealized female body image that is unattainable by most girls as well as being victimized through cyber bullying attacks. In addition, the potential for the negative effects of manmade and natural disasters is also intensified when girls rely on social media ……
Ali, S. (2018). “Social Media Usage among Teenage Girls in Rawalpindi and Islamabad.” Global Media Journal, vol. 16, p. 31.
Chukwuere, Joshua Ebere and Chukwuere, Precious. (2017, December). Cyberbullying of female students: An exploration of literature study. Gender & Behaviour, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 9983-9991.
Goodwin, Robin, Palgi,Yuval, Osnat, Lavenda, Yaira, Hamama-Raz and Ben-Ezra, Menachem. (2015), “Association between Media Use, Acute Stress Disorder and Psychological Distress.” Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, vol. 84, no. 4, pp. 253-254
Granello, Paul F. and Zyromski, Brett. (2018, September-August). “Developing a Comprehensive School Suicide Prevention Program.” Professional School Counseling, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 37-42.
Hutchinson, Tracy S. (2020, April 19). Ten things mentally strong people do during a pandemic. Psychology Today. [online] available: https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/the-pulse-mental-health/202004/10-things-mentally-strong-people-do-during-pandemic.
Kemp. Simon. (2020, January). “Digital 2020.” We Are Social. [online] available: https://wearesocial.com/blog/2020/01/digital-2020-3-8-billion-people-use-social-media.
Redden, Crystal V. (2018, December). “The Media\\\\\\\\\\\\'s Influence on Female Relational Aggression and Its Implications for Schools.” Canadian Journal of Education, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 374-381.
Reinberg, Steven. (2019, August 14). “Here\\\\\\\\\\\\'s How Too Much Social Media Can Harm Girls.” WebMD. [online] available: https://www.webmd.com/mental-health/news/20190814/ heres-how-too-much-social-media-can-harm-girls#1.
...Bullying Transgender- The Behaviors and Acts Leading up to a Transition
Transgender, as a terminology, alludes to individuals whose sense of their gender is different from what would be anticipated based on the sex individualities that they are naturally born with. A transgender individual may identify as a trans woman, which means a person who has a self-concept that is female, with the endeavor to or has transitioned to living as a woman after being born with male genitalia. On the other hand, an individual who identifies as a trans man implies having a male self-concept despite being born with female genitalia. Furthermore, an individual who is non-binary does not identify stringently as a woman or a man (Sangganjanavanich, 2016).
Starting as early as a child, a transgender individual may have continuous and perpetual feelings of gender dysphoria. This refers to a detachment between the individual's primary as well as……
Bockting, W. O., Miner, M. H., Swinburne Romine, R. E., Hamilton, A., & Coleman, E. (2013). Stigma, mental health, and resilience in an online sample of the US transgender population. American journal of public health, 103(5), 943-951.
Bockting, W., Coleman, E., Deutsch, M. B., Guillamon, A., Meyer, I., Meyer III, W., ... & Ettner, R. (2016). Adult development and quality of life of transgender and gender-nonconforming people. Current opinion in endocrinology, diabetes, and obesity, 23(2), 188.
Catelan, R. F., Costa, A. B., & Lisboa, C. S. D. M. (2017). Psychological interventions for transgender persons: a scoping review. International Journal of Sexual Health, 29(4), 325-337.
Divan, V., Cortez, C., Smelyanskaya, M., & Keatley, J. (2016). Transgender social inclusion and equality: a pivotal path to development. Journal of the International AIDS Society, 19, 20803.
Drydakis, N. (2020). Trans People, Transitioning, Mental Health, Life, and Job Satisfaction. Handbook of Labor, Human Resources and Population Economics, 1-22.
Glynn, T. R., & van den Berg, J. J. (2017). A systematic review of interventions to reduce problematic substance use among transgender individuals: A call to action. Transgender Health, 2(1), 45-59.
Grossman, A. H., Haney, A. P., Edwards, P., Alessi, E. J., Ardon, M., & Howell, T. J. (2009). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth talk about experiencing and coping with school violence: A qualitative study. Journal of LGBT Youth, 6(1), 24-46.
Jellestad, L., Jäggi, T., Corbisiero, S., Schaefer, D. J., Jenewein, J., Schneeberger, A., ... & Garcia Nuñez, D. (2018). Quality of life in transitioned trans persons: a retrospective cross-sectional cohort study. BioMed research international, 2018.
… use of social media can be addictive and that it can negatively affect mental health and wellbeing because it can cause depression, anxiety, bullying, envy, and so on. Many surveys of users have also ended in the users themselves admitting the negative effects of social media on ……
Berry, Natalie, et al. \\\\\\\\\\\\"Social media and its relationship with mood, self?esteem and paranoia in psychosis.\\\\\\\\\\\\" Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 138.6 (2018): 558-570.
Conick, Hal. Marketing\\\\\\\\\\\\'s Ethical Line Between Social Media Habit and Addiction. American Marketing Association, 2017.
Do?an, U?ur. \\\\\\\\\\\\"Effects of social network use on happiness, psychological well-being, and life satisfaction of high school students: Case of facebook and twitter.\\\\\\\\\\\\" Egitim ve Bilim 41.183 (2016), 217-231.
Goldhar, Thomas. The Negative Impacts that Social Media Have On Our Self-Esteem. Medium.com, 2018. Web.
Hu, Elise. \\\\\\\\\\\\"Facebook makes us sadder and less satisfied, study finds.\\\\\\\\\\\\" In Isaac Gillman Online lives, offline consequences: Professionalism, information ethics and professional students. Interface on the Internet 9.1 (2009) 484-485.
Konnikova, Maria. “How Facebook Makes Us Unhappy.” Annals of technology. The New Yorker, 2013. Web.
Kross, Ethan, et al. \\\\\\\\\\\\"Facebook use predicts declines in subjective well-being in young adults.\\\\\\\\\\\\" PloS one 8.8 (2013): e69841.
Orben, Amy, Tobias Dienlin, and Andrew K. Przybylski. \\\\\\\\\\\\"Social media’s enduring effect on adolescent life satisfaction.\\\\\\\\\\\\" Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 116.21 (2019): 10226-10228.
… care is compromised due to highly stressed healthcare workers. It is also a crisis for nurses who should not have to cope with bullying and punishingly long hours and caring for more patients than is feasible. The nursing profession offers a unique, holistic……
ANA health care economist Peter McMenamin on the nursing shortage outlook. (2019). Nursing
World. Retrieved from: https://www.nursingworld.org/~4afb8f/globalassets/practiceandpolicy/health-and- safety/rnjobmkt_peterminterview_final_030713.pdf
Bond, D. (2017). Will BSN students consider a future nursing faculty role? Nursing Education Perspectives, 38(1):9–17.
Botha, E., Gwin, & Purpora, C. (2015). The effectiveness of mindfulness based programs in reducing stress experienced by nurses in adult hospital settings: a systematic review of quantitative evidence protocol. JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports, 13(10):21–29. Retrieved from: https://insights.ovid.com/pubmed?pmid=26571279
Crawford, C. (2019). Addition of Advanced Practice Registered Nurses to the trauma team: An integrated systematic review of literature. Journal of Trauma Nursing. 26(3):141–146,
Gillespie, G. L., Grubb, P. L., Brown, K., Boesch, M. C., & Ulrich, D. (2017). ‘Nurses eat their young:’ A novel bullying educational program for student nurses. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 7(7), 11–21. doi:10.5430/jnep.v7n7P11
Haddad, L.M., Toney-Butler, T.J. (2019). Nursing shortage. StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK493175/
Nurse staffing crisis. (2019). Nursing World. Retrieved from: https://www.nursingworld.org/practice-policy/nurse-staffing/nurse-staffing-crisis/
...Bullying Background: Why Teach Sexual Education?
With about half of all high school students admitting to have already had sex, and only 60% of those students claiming they used a condom, sexual education can be considered a public health imperative (National Conference of State Legislatures, 2019). Unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases are the most important health-related reasons to teach sexual education in public schools. Research has shown that “when sex education is comprehensive, students feel more informed, make safer choices and have healthier outcomes — resulting in fewer unplanned pregnancies and more protection against sexually transmitted diseases and infection,” (“America’s Sex Education: How We Are Failing Our Students,” 2017, p. 1). Children will seek out and find information related to sex outside the classroom, such as on the Internet, opening them up to potentially poor sources of information. Compounding the problem is that only 13 states currently require sexual education……
Abbott, K., Ellis, S. J., & Abbott, R. (2016). “We”ve got a lack of family values’: an examination of how teachers formulate and justify their approach to teaching sex and relationships education. Sex Education, 16(6), 678–691. doi:10.1080/14681811.2016.1169398
“America’s Sex Education: How We Are Failing Our Students,” (2017). USC Department of Nursing. Retrieved from https://nursing.usc.edu/blog/americas-sex-education/
Bauman, S.D. (2018). When sex ed pretends to be secular. Senior Independent Study Theses. Paper 8059. Retrieved from https://openworks.wooster.edu/independentstudy/8059
Kirby, D. B. (2008). The impact of abstinence and comprehensive sex and STD/HIV education programs on adolescent sexual behavior. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 5(3), 18-27
Lepore, J. (2015). The facts of life. 94 Foreign Aff. 144 (2015).
National Conference of State Legislatures (2019). State policies on sex education in schools. Retrieved from http://www.ncsl.org/research/health/state-policies-on-sex-education-in-schools.aspx
Pardini, P. (2019). The history of sexuality education. Rethinking Schools. Retrieved from http://rethinkingschools.aidcvt.com/sex/sexhisto.shtml
Planned Parenthood (2019). What is sex education? Retrieved from https://www.plannedparenthood.org/learn/for-educators/what-sex-education
… Internet, nearly 500 of them had been…[break]…and loneliness in teens and also to substance use disorders. Suicide ideation has also been linked to cyberbullying. Whether these negative mental health, emotional health, social health, and physical and spiritual health effects are directly caused by Internet usage or whether ……
Agarwal, A. K., Verma, A., & Agarwal, M. (2017). Internet victimization and depression among adolescents, 14(3), 60-62.
Cheung, J. C. S., Chan, K. H. W., Lui, Y. W., Tsui, M. S., & Chan, C. (2018). Psychological well-being and adolescents’ internet addiction: A school-based cross-sectional study in Hong Kong. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 35(5), 477-487.
Festinger, D. S., Dugosh, K. L., Clements, N., Flynn, A. B., Falco, M., McLellan, A. T.,& Arria, A. M. (2016). Use of the internet to obtain drugs without a prescription among treatment-involved adolescents and young adults. Journal of child & adolescent substance abuse, 25(5), 480-486.
Görzig, A. (2016). Adolescents’ viewing of suicide-related web content and psychological problems: Differentiating the roles of cyberbullying involvement. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 19(8), 502-509.
Law, Y. M. (2019). Family factors and internet addiction among junior secondary school students in Hong Kong. Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Doctoral Dissertation.
Sajeev Kumar, P., Prasad, N., Raj, Z., & Abraham, A. (2015). Internet addiction and substance use disorders in adolescent students-a cross sectional study. J. Int. Med. Dent, 2, 172-179.
… of approval from members who are socially conventional. Within the school setting, LGBTQ youth have reported facing negative involvements such as victimization and bullying by anti-gay students (D’Augelli, 2006).
Reflect (i.e Identify, compare and Discuss) on at least two theories of social work practice and indicate which ……
Bilodeau, B. L., & Renn, K. A. (2005). Analysis of LGBT identity development models and implications for practice. New directions for student services, 2005(111), 25-39.
Cray, A., Miller, K., & Durso, L. E. (2013). Seeking shelter: The experiences and unmet needs of LGBT homeless youth. Washington, DC: Center for American Progress.
Cunningham, M., Pergamit, M., Astone, N., & Luna, J. (2014). Homeless LGBTQ youth. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.
Dank, M., Yahner, J., Madden, K., Bañuelos, I., Yu, L., Ritchie, A., ... & Conner, B. (2015). Surviving the Streets of New York: Experiences of LGBTQ Youth, YMSM and YWSW Engaged in Survival Sex. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.
D'augelli, A. R. (2006). Developmental and contextual factors and mental health among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths. American Psychological Association.
Durso, L. E., & Gates, G. J. (2012). Serving our youth: Findings from a national survey of services providers working with lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth who are homeless or at risk of becoming homeless. Los Angeles: The Williams Institute with True Colors and the Palatte Fund.
Foss, S. (2017). A Guide to Social Work Advocacy for Transgender Adolescents and Young Adults. Texas State University.
Higa, D., Hoppe, M. J., Lindhorst, T., Mincer, S., Beadnell, B., Morrison, D. M., ... & Mountz, S. (2014). Negative and positive factors associated with the well-being of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning (LGBTQ) youth. Youth & Society, 46(5), 663-687.
… and production hours, and the toll placed on others who must provide care. The social cost of depression is that teens suffer from bullying, unrealistic views, and peer pressure. Adolescents can become withdrawn and isolated and fear being part of groups that are not online. They can ……
Andreassen, Cecilie Schou, Ståle Pallesen, and Mark D. Griffiths. \\\\\\\\\\\\"The relationship between addictive use of social media, narcissism, and self-esteem: Findings from a large national survey.\\\\\\\\\\\\" Addictive behaviors 64 (2017): 287-293.
Bandura, A. “Toward a psychology of human agency: Pathways and reflections.” Perspectives on Psychological Science 13.2 (2018): 130-136.
Chester, Jeff, and Kathryn Montgomery. \\\\\\\\\\\\"No escape: Marketing to kids in the digital age.\\\\\\\\\\\\" Multinational Monitor 29.1 (2008): 11.
Greenberg, P. The Growing Economic Burden of Depression in the U.S. 2015. Retrieved from https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/mind-guest-blog/the-growing-economic-burden-of-depression-in-the-u-s/
Klinenberg, Eric. \\\\\\\\\\\\"Is loneliness a health epidemic?.\\\\\\\\\\\\" New York Times (2018): SR8.
Lim, Xin Jean, et al. \\\\\\\\\\\\"The impact of social media influencers on purchase intention and the mediation effect of customer attitude.\\\\\\\\\\\\" Asian Journal of Business Research 7.2 (2017): 19-36.
Lohmann, R. What\\\\\\\\\\\\'s Driving the Rise in Teen Depression? 2019. https://health.usnews.com/wellness/for-parents/articles/2019-04-22/teen-depression-is-on-the-rise
Mayo Clinic. “Depression.” MayoClinic, 2019. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/teen-depression/symptoms-causes/syc-20350985
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