… Gwyn, 1996).
History of Canada-US relations around the treaty
The call for a reciprocity treaty began in earnest in the year 1848 after Britain repealed the Corn Laws. The Corn Laws were protectionist laws that imposed high duties on corn imports into Great Britain and its territories. The repeal of Corn Laws was the first step Britain took towards free trade. It was what made the United States try and reach an agreement with the country over fishing rights off … an agreement with the country over fishing rights off the Canadian colonies. The United States was desperate to reach an agreement with Great Britain to ensure American fishermen could continue fishing in the fish-rich Canadian Atlantic fisheries. After comprehensive negotiations, several favorable factors including less opposition from … as possible with little success to reconcile the Reciprocity Treaty with the economic policy of free trade that had been……
Ankli, R. E. (1971). The reciprocity treaty of 1854. The Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d\\\\\\\\\\\\'Economique, 4(1), 1-20.
Gerriets, M., & Gwyn, J. (1996). Tariffs, trade, and reciprocity: Nova Scotia, 1830-1866. Acadiensis, 25(2), 62-81.
Haynes, F. E. (1892). The Reciprocity treaty with Canada of 1854 (Vol. 7, No. 6). Baltimore, Md.: American Economic Association.
Hinton, M. (2013). Canadian economic growth and the reciprocity treaty of 1854. Working Papers 13038, Economic History Society.
Masters, D. C. (1963). The reciprocity treaty of 1854: its history, its relation to British colonial and foreign policy, and to the development of Canadian fiscal autonomy (Vol. 9). McGill-Queen\\\\\\\\\\\\'s Press-MQUP.
Officer, L. H., & Smith, L. B. (1968). The Canadian-American reciprocity treaty of 1855 to 1866. Journal of Economic History, 598-623.
Porritt, E. (1908). Sixty Years of Protection in Canada, 1846-1907: Where Industry Leans on the Politician. London: Macmillan.
Saunders, S. A. (1934). The Maritime Provinces and the Reciprocity Treaty. The Dalhousie Review.
… French and the British Empires. One of the biggest offenses to American sensibilities at the time was the fact of British impressments—i.e., of Britain forcing Americans to join the Royal Navy to fight Napoleon. Americans had already won their independence from Britain and viewed impressment as dishonorable and unlawful. Impressment was lawful in Britain during war time—but America was no longer under British law, so they considered it an offense. The British needed men to work their … Canada.
The outcome of the war was insignificant. The Treaty of Ghent was signed in 1814 and the relations between the U.S. and Britain simply went back to what they were before the war started. Neither the U.S. nor Britain gained any new territory. However, the war itself did have some consequence on New England manufacturing. New England wanted to make it more ……
Dwight, T. (1833). History of the Hartford Convention: With a Review of the Policy of
the United States Government Which Led to the War of 1812. New York; Boston: N. & J. White; Russell, Odiorne, & Company.
… deliberate silence to cover the truth of what transpired in the deposing of Prime Minister Mossadeq in 1953(Levin, 2018).
The U.S. and Britain blatantly ignored international law and pursued a hidden change of regime, and set the stage for a portent adversary in the Middle East. … the stage for a portent adversary in the Middle East. However, the originally perceived enemy was not Iran. The shocks are still evident. Britain accused Iran of going against the legal rights of the company and pushed for the boycott of oil from Iran. The campaign resulted … legal rights of the company and pushed for the boycott of oil from Iran. The campaign resulted in the financial crisis in Iran. Britain attempted to lure America into participating in a coup, but Truman had earlier rebuffed the idea. However, when Eisenhower took charge of the … The aim was to prevent……
Contini, C. (2013). A Realistic View on Iran: International relations and Global Politics. GRIN Verlag.
De Seve, M. (2020). Operation Ajax: The Story of the CIA Coup that Remade the Middle East. Verso Books.
Fowler, R. (2018). More Than a Doctrine: The Eisenhower Era in the Middle East. U of Nebraska Press.
Lee, C. T. (2013). A Cold War Narrative: The Covert Coup of Mohammad Mossadeq, Role of the U.S. Press and Its Haunting Legacies. Senior Theses, Trinity College, Hartford, CT. http://digitalrepository.trincoll.edu/theses/300
Levin, Y. A. (2018). Operation Ajax in the CIA analytics: colonial knowledge in postcolonial age. Samara Journal of Science, 7(2), 200-203.
Luce, D. D. (2017, September 20). The specter of operation AJAX. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2003/aug/20/foreignpolicy.iran
Merica, D., & Hanna, J. (2013). In declassified document, CIA acknowledges role in\\\\\\'53 Iran Coup. CNN News. Retrieved June 15, 2020.
Roosevelt, K. (1979). Countercoup, the Struggle for the Control of Iran. McGraw-Hill Companies.
...Britain Evaluating a Counterterrorism Strategy
One of the problems with the “war on terror” as first conceived in the wake of 9/11 was that it lacked objectivity and realism (Taddeo, 2010). The mission calculus was unclear, the operation involved lacking in all the variables of iSTART (ideology, strategy, tactics, accounting/financing, recruitment, targets). What was the aim of the counterterrorism operation in Afghanistan? Numerous negative consequences of the mission followed: the liberation of the poppy fields and the spike in the heroin trade around the world that decimated communities, including American ones back home (Felbab-Brown, 2017); the rise of the Islamic State throughout the Middle East (Barton, 2016); two trillion dollars in costs in addition to the loss of 2,400 US soldiers and the deaths of nearly 40,000 Afghani civilians (Almukhtar & Nordland, 2019). Because the US lacked an adequate iSTART framework going into its counterterrorism operation in Afghanistan, the result……
Almukhtar, S. & Nordland, R. (2019). What Did the U.S. Get for $2 Trillion in Afghanistan? Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2019/12/09/world/middleeast/afghanistan-war-cost.html
Barno, D. (2007). The Other War: Counterinsurgency Strategy in Afghanistan 2003– 20. Military Review, 87(5), 32–44.
Barton, G. (2016). Out of the ashes of Afghanistan and Iraq: the rise and rise of Islamic State. Retrieved from https://theconversation.com/out-of-the-ashes-of-afghanistan-and-iraq-the-rise-and-rise-of-islamic-state-55437
Felbab-Brown, V. (2017). Afghanistan’s opium production is through the roof—why Washington shouldn’t overreact. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/blog/order-from-chaos/2017/11/21/afghanistans-opium-production-is-through-the-roof-why-washington-shouldnt-overreact/
FM 3-24. (2014). Retrieved from https://fas.org/irp/doddir/army/fm3-24.pdf
Hitz, F. P. (1999). Obscuring Propriety: The CIA and Drugs. International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence, 12(4), 448-462.
IrishTimes. (2001). Britain freezes £61m of suspected Taliban assets. Retrieved from https://www.irishtimes.com/news/britain-freezes-61m-of-suspected-taliban-assets-1.398565
Kiras, J. D. (2002). Terrorism and Irregular Warfare, in John Baylis, James Wirtz, Eliot Cohen and Colin Gray eds., Strategy in the Contemporary World (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), 208–232.
...Britain Intersection of Faith Nationalism and Environment in Ireland
While terrorist groups are rarely defended by non-members, there is often the sense among objective observers that not all members of a religion that may be said to have “spawned” terrorism are terrorists or sympathetic to terrorism themselves. For instance, not every Muslim supports ISIS or al-Qaeda, and not every Irish Catholic supports the Irish Republican Army (IRA). Most Muslims and Catholics view their religions as religions of peace. On the other hand, critics of religion tend to hold the opinion that all religions lead to extremism when taken seriously and that people from these groups who become “extremists” and take to terrorism are really simply adhering body, mind and soul to the ideology of their religion. But how true is this criticism? Is it possible that in every Muslim or Catholic there exists a potential jihadist or a potential Crusader?……
Bamford, B. (2005). The Role and Effectiveness of Intelligence in Northern Ireland. Intelligence and National Security, 20(4), 581-607.
Bell, J. B. (2008). The Secret Army: The IRA. London: Transaction Publishers.
IRA Green Book. (1977). Accessed 14 Dec 2015 from https://tensmiths.files.wordpress.com/2012/08/15914572-ira-green-book-volumes-1-and-2.pdf
Maloney, E. (2010). Voices from the Grave: Two Men’s War in Ireland. NY: Faber, Faber.
O’Brien, B. (1999). The Long War: The IRA and Sinn Fein. NY: Syracuse University Press.
Rooney, N. (2007). Violent nationalism in catholic communities: The Provisional IRA and ETA. Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism, 7(3), 64-77.
Shanahan, Timothy. (2008). The Provisional IRA and the Morality of Terrorism. UK: Edinburgh University Press.
Taylor, P. (2001). Brits. UK: Bloomsbury Publishing.
...Britain Adolescent adjustment and well-being: Effects of parental divorce and distress
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of divorce or separation on an adolescent’s psychological adjustment, investigate if there are any gender differences in the effect of divorce, the impact of time on the adolescent after divorce, and the effect of divorce on the adolescent after controlling for parental symptoms of depression and anxiety (Størksen, Røysamb, Holmen, & Tambs, 2006).
The independent variables for this study were divorce and parental distress. These two variables were selected because the researchers wanted to establish the effect of divorce on adolescents and compare it to those of adolescents whose parents had not divorced or separated. Adolescents who had grown up with one parent were included in the no divorce group since they had only known a single parent. Parental distress was used to determine the impact this would have……
Størksen, I., Røysamb, E., Holmen, T. L., & Tambs, K. (2006). Adolescent adjustment and well being: effects of parental divorce and distress. Scandinavian journal of psychology, 47(1), 75-84.
...Britain Conceptions of the Cold War
The Cold War was the time period following the end of World War II, when the world was basically divided between Communism on the one hand and Capitalism on the other. The West favored Capitalism and the East favored Communism. The U.S. was the main power in the West and Soviet Russia was the main power in the East. The economic approaches of the two powers were only part of the story, however; this was also a war for hegemony. The U.S. wanted to influence the world order just as much as the Soviets did. Each tried to spread their influence—the U.S. throughout Europe via the Marshall Plan (Hogan & Hogan, 1989); the Soviets throughout Asia and Latin America through subsidization of Communist takeovers. The scare of Communism taking over in the U.S. was evident: McCarthyism was the result of this scare, but the assassination……
Hogan, M. J. & Hogan, M. (1989). The Marshall Plan: America, Britain and the
Reconstruction of Western Europe, 1947-1952. Cambridge University Press.
Stone, O. & Kuznick, P. (2012). The untold history of the United States. NY: Gallery.
...Britain Impact of Drug Abuse on School Children Aged 10 To 18 in Developed Countries (U.S., Canada, France, England, Germany, Italy, Russia, Australia, Japan and China): Narrative Literature Review
The problem addressed in this literature review is that in developed countries around the world, drug abuse among school children between the ages of 10 and 18 is on the rise (UN, 2018). School children are particularly vulnerable because their bodies and minds are still developing and when drugs are introduced to their systems, the impact can be devastating to them personally in physical and mental health terms (Stockings et al., 2016). Yet all around the developed world this is happening. Children are being brought into and exposed to drug culture because drug use, particularly marijuana use is on the rise through vaping, which was meant as a tool to wean tobacco smokers off cigarettes. Instead it is allowing young and……
Baggio, S., Spilka, S., Studer, J., Iglesias, K., & Gmel, G. (2016). Trajectories of drug use among French young people: Prototypical stages of involvement in illicit drug use. Journal of Substance Use, 21(5), 485-490.
Bonyani, A., Safaeian, L., Chehrazi, M., Etedali, A., Zaghian, M., & Mashhadian, F. (2018). A high school-based education concerning drug abuse prevention. Journal of education and health promotion, 7.
Chu, Y. W. L. (2015). Do medical marijuana laws increase hard-drug use?. The Journal of Law and Economics, 58(2), 481-517.
Downes, D. (2017). The drug addict as a folk devil. In Drugs and politics (pp. 89-97). Routledge.
Goodchild, M., Nargis, N., & d\\'Espaignet, E. T. (2018). Global economic cost of smoking-attributable diseases. Tobacco control, 27(1), 58-64.
Grant, C. N., & Bélanger, R. E. (2017). Cannabis and Canada’s children and youth. Paediatrics & child health, 22(2), 98-102.
Herbert, A., Gonzalez-Izquierdo, A., McGhee, J., Li, L., & Gilbert, R. (2016). Time-trends in rates of hospital admission of adolescents for violent, self-inflicted or drug/alcohol-related injury in England and Scotland, 2005–11: population-based analysis. Journal of Public Health, 39(1), 65-73.
Henkel, D., & Zemlin, U. (2016). Social inequality and substance use and problematic gambling among adolescents and young adults: a review of epidemiological surveys in Germany. Current drug abuse reviews, 9(1), 26-48.
… that is highly lucrative, as they are valued to be worth approximately $700 billion in the United States and roughly £80 billion in Britain. Statistics indicate that the LGBT economy in America comprises of LGBT businesses that bring in $1.7 trillion to the entire economy and generate ……
NGLCC. (2019). About NGLCC. Retrieved from: https://www.nglcc.org/
Hill, C., & Jones, G. (2011). Essentials of strategic management. Nelson Education.
Hill, C. W., Jones, G. R., & Schilling, M. A. (2014). Strategic management: theory: an integrated approach. Cengage Learning.
...Britain The Rights of Man and Revolution in France
Despite the push to eradicate a class based system during the Enlightenment and events leading up to the French Revolution, it was replaced instead by classes based on property and wealth rather than nobility. Two leading figures for and against the new classes were Robespierre and Sieyes. Sieyes supported separating voting rights from human rights while Robespierre believed voting rights were inherent rights of man. Robespierre’s ideals deteriorated as he gained power. The rights of man were essentially an Enlightenment notion. Thomas Paine had written The Rights of Man in 1791 as the French Revolution was underway and he had even gone there to show his support for it; however, Robespierre had him locked away and schedule for execution, not trusting the American. In short, France was a hotbed of insurrection, chaos, mistrust, and change. The politics of governance were in……
Abbe Sieyes. \\\\\\\\\\\\"Preliminary to the French Constitution.\\\\\\\\\\\\" In The French Revolution and Human Rights: A Brief History with Documents, 2nd Edition, edited by Lynn Hunt, 78. Boston: Bedford, 2016.
Cook, Malcolm. Elections in the French Revolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
“French Constitution, Rights of Man and Citizen,” Liberty, Equality, Fraternity, accessed November 8, 2019, http://chnm.gmu.edu/revolution/d/55
Higonnet, Patrice. “The Harmonization of the Spheres,” The French Revolution and the Creation of Modern Political Culture, vol. 4, The Terror. Emerald Publishing, 1994.
Hunt, Lynn. \\\\\\\\\\\\"Introduction: The Revolutionary Origins of Human Rights.\\\\\\\\\\\\" In The French Revolution and Human Rights: A Brief History with Documents, 2nd Edition, edited by Lynn Hunt, 1-31. Boston: Bedford, 2016
Jones, Colin. The Great Nation. London: Penguin Books, 2003
Lembcke, Oliver, and Weber, Florian. “Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès : The Essential Political Writings.” 1 st ed. Vol. 9
Montesquieu. “Montesquieu on Government Systems (1748).” French Revolution, January 18, 2018. Accessed November 4, 2019, https://alphahistory.com/frenchrevolution/montesquieu-on-government-systems-1748/
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