… and vilification (Sheldon 1997). Yet as Sheldon (1997) shows, clandestine operations are not new or unique to the modern world and in fact ancient rome used them whenever military operations were impractical. Thus, “political influence operations, seeding, propaganda, political patronage, safe havens, political assassination, and paramilitary operations” can … political patronage, safe havens, political assassination, and paramilitary operations” can all be traced back more or less to similar operations implemented by the ancient Romans (Sheldon 1997, 299). Today, there are many different facets to clandestine operations, and many agencies that use them—from the CIA to the … really goes on behind the scenes.
This literature review has shown that clandestine operations predate modern society by thousands of years. The ancient Romans practiced clandestine operations in lieu of warfare to satisfy state ambitions. Statecraft today is replete with instances of clandestine operations that range ……
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...Ancient rome Part 1: Introduction
By the 1950s, America had moved on from the turmoil of WW2 and was enjoying a bit of peace and prosperity. The Cold War was but a looming threat that would escalate fiercely in the 1960s—but in the 50s, Americans were generally content to enjoy themselves. Still, the specter of Communism loomed and had been perceived as an encroaching problem in Hollywood since the 1930s. Following WW2, Senator Joe McCarthy began his crusade to raise awareness about this specter by flaunting a list of Communists that he knew were secretly hiding in the American government. As fear grew that the Soviets had infiltrated American society, the list grew to include others in other spheres—including Hollywood, where writers suspected of propagating Communist ideology and subtly inserting it into American films came under scrutiny. The Hollywood Blacklist actually began in the latter half of the 1940s but it reached……
Ceplair, Larry and Christopher Trumbo. Dalton Trumbo: Blacklisted Hollywood Radical. Lexington: The University Press of Kentucky, 2015.
Griffith, Robert. McCarthyism: The Politics of Fear: Joseph R. McCarthy and the Senate. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1987.
Krutnik, Frank. “Un-American” Hollywood: Politics and Film in the Blacklist Era. New Brunswick N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2007.
McGilligan, Patrick and Paul Buhle. Tender Comrades: A Backstory of the Hollywood Blacklist. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2012.
Schrecker, Ellen. The Age of McCarthyism: A Brief History with Documents. Boston: St. Martin’s Press, 1994.
Schrecker, Ellen. Many are the Crimes: McCarthyism in America. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 1998.
Smith, Jeff. Criticism, the Cold War, and the Blacklist: Reading the Hollywood Reds. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2014.
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