… commonwealth government of Australia, signed an agreement that was meant to ensure that all the relevant stakeholders cooperate to ensure indigenous and non-indigenous Australians have equality in life expectancy and health status by 2030 (Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission 2008).
For quite a long time, it … of health. Many organizations and activists have over the years been trying to bridge the gap in health status between them and non-indigenous Australians and the signing of the agreement was a huge milestone that served two purposes. It raised public awareness on the matter and it … closing the gap policy
The goal of the policy is to create parity in the health status of indigenous and non-indigenous Australians.
0. Closing the life expectancy gap within a generation
One of the measures commonly used to assess a population’s health is life expectancy. … life expectancy for Aboriginal and……
AIHW. (2011, May 5). Life expectancy and mortality of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Retrieved from Australian Institute of Health and Welfare: https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/indigenous-australians/life-expectancy-and-mortality-of-aboriginal-and-to/contents/summary
AIHW. (2019, July 17). Deaths in Australia. Retrieved from Australian Institute of Health and Welfare: https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/life-expectancy-death/deaths/contents/life-expectancy
Altman, J. C., Biddle, N., & Hunter, B. H. (2009). Prospects for ‘Closing the Gap’ in Cocioeconomic Outcomes for Indigenous Australians? Australian Economic History Review, 49(3), 225-251.
Biddle, N. (2019, February 14). Four lessons from 11 years of Closing the Gap reports. Retrieved from The Conversation: https://theconversation.com/four-lessons-from-11-years-of-closing-the-gap-reports-111816
Biddle, N., & Taylor, J. (2012). Demographic Consequences of the ‘Closing the Gap’ Indigenous Policy in Australia. Popul Res Policy Rev, 31, 571–585.
COAG. (n.d.). National Indigenous Reform Agreement. Council of Australian Governments.
Crikey. (2012, September 25). Black government expenditure — it’s a white thing. Retrieved from Crikey: https://www.crikey.com.au/2012/09/25/black-government-expenditure-its-a-white-thing/
Department of Prime Miniter and the Cabinet. (2008). Closing the Gap-Prime Minister\\\\\\'s report 2018. Australian Government.
… to ethnicity, culture, gender, and social determinants of health. According to Khanal et al. (2018), ethnicity affects access to kidney transplants as Indigenous Australians are less likely to undergo dialysis than non-Indigenous Australians. Indigenous Australians are less likely to be placed on the kidney transplantation waiting list in comparison to non-Indigenous Australians. Additionally, this population experience challenges in early access to renal replacement therapy. With regards to social determinants of health, Indigenous Australians are less likely to access to get kidney transplants because of their remoteness. These people live in remote areas characterized with poor health … DOI: 10.23937/2469-5823/1510053
Khanal, N., Lawton, P.D., Cass, A. & McDonald, S.P. (2018, September 17). Disparity of Access to Kidney Transplantation by Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. The Medical Journal of Australia, 209(6), 261-266.…
Albougami, A.S., Pounds, K.G. & Alotaibi, J.S. (2016, June 27). Comparison of Four Cultural Competence Models in Transcultural Nursing: A Discussion Paper. International Archives of Nursing and Health Care, 2(4). DOI: 10.23937/2469-5823/1510053
Khanal, N., Lawton, P.D., Cass, A. & McDonald, S.P. (2018, September 17). Disparity of Access to Kidney Transplantation by Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. The Medical Journal of Australia, 209(6), 261-266.
… meant to ensure that health service consumers get the same quality of care when served in any health care facility across the nation (Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care [ACSQHC], 2016). The main objective of the NSQHS standards is to protect users of health ……
Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care [ACSQHC]. (2019). Implementation of the national safey and quality health service standards. Retrieved from https://www.safetyandquality.gov.au/standards/nsqhs-standards/implementation-nsqhs-standards
Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care [ACSQHC]. (2016). National safety and quality health service standards. Retrieved from https://www.safetyandquality.gov.au/our-work/assessment-to-the-nsqhs-standards/nsqhs-standards-second-edition/
Ben Natan, M., Sharon, I., Mahajna, M., & Mahajna, S. (2017). Factors affecting nursing students' intention to report medication errors: An application of the theory of planned behavior. Nurse Education Today, 58(2), 38-42. doi:10.1016/j.nedt.2017.07.017
Bogossian, F., Cooper, S., Kelly, M., Levett-Jones, T., McKenna, L., Slark, J., & Seaton, P. (2018). Best practice in clinical simulation education, are we there yet? A cross-sectional survey of simulation in Australian and New Zealand pre-registration nursing education. Collegian, 25(3), 327-334. doi:10.1016/j.colegn.2017.09.003
Claffey, C. (2018). Near-miss medication errors provide a wake-up call. Nursing, 48(1), 53-55. doi:10.1097/01.NURSE.0000527615.45031.9e
Davies, K. M., Coombes, I. D., Keogh, S., & Whitfield, K. M. (2019). Medication administration evaluation tool design: An expert panel review. Collegian, 26(1), 118-124. doi:10.1016/j.colegn.2018.05.001
Government of New South Wales. (2013). Medication handing in NSW public health facilities. Retrieved from https://www1.health.nsw.gov.au
Government of Western Australia. (2013). Storage and recording of restricted schedule 4 (S4R) medicines. Retrieved from https://ww2.health.wa.gov.au/About-us/Policy-frameworks
...Australian NRS311 – Life Stage Considerations: Child, Adolescent & Family Health
Assessment Task Two: Child Protection Case Study
Young people and children are the most vulnerable groups in society. As a Registered nurse in NSW, I can identify, consult others, and respond to situations where a young person or a child is at risk of harm. Some of the common reasons that predispose young people and children to risk include family and domestic violence, sexual, emotional, and physical neglect. In Fiona's case, the important risk of harm is neglect (NSW Government, 2018b). Fiona burnt part of her feet on the heater three days ago. Susanna, on noticing, cleaned the wound using tap water. She applied papaw ointment and covered it with an adhesive bandage. In this case, the most significant risk is neglect. Under the circumstances, a question suffices to ask where the mother was when Fiona, a three-year-old, got……
Australian Law Reform Commission (ALRC). (2010). Family violence: A national legal response. Canberra: ALRC.
Child Family Community Australia (CFCA). (2016). Australian legal definitions: When is a child in need of protection? (CFCA Resource Sheet). Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies.
New South Wales Government. (1998). Children and Young Persons (Care and Protection) Act 1998.
NSW Government, (2018a). Child wellbeing and child protection fact sheet for NSW Health workers. Retrieved from https://www.health.nsw.gov.au/parvan/childprotect/Pages/child-wellbeing.aspx
NSW Government, (2018b). About child protection and wellbeing. Retrieved from https://www.health.nsw.gov.au/parvan/childprotect/Pages/default.aspx
WHO (2002). \\\\\\\\\\\\"Chapter 3: Child abuse and neglect by parents and other caregivers.\\\\\\\\\\\\" World report on violence and health. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/global_campaign/en/chap3.pdf
World Health Organization. (2006). Preventing child maltreatment: a guide to taking action and generating evidence. Geneva, WHO.
...Australian Evidence-Based Programs and Practices in psychological health
Numerous years of research and studies in clinical psychology have illustrated that how individuals process received information, particularly with an attentional bias (AB) to scary information as well as bias in negatively interpreting vague information and data (interpretation bias), actually plays a huge part in the start and maintenance of depression and anxiety (Hughes at al., 2016). There is a growing interest in health psychology in the application of these experimental techniques to evaluate possible cognitive processing prejudices in health conditions like chronic pain, irritable bowel syndrome, cancer, and chronic fatigue syndrome together with health behaviors like smoking, eating, and alcohol abuse. Experimental studies in these fields could inform hypothetical development by allowing access to types and levels of information and data processing that might underpin unhelpful disease representation and manipulate health behaviors. Therefore, this paper is a study that aims to……
Australian Psychological Society. (2010). Evidence?based psychological interventions in the treatment of mental disorders: A literature review. Victoria: Australian Psychological Association.
Barth, J., Munder, T., Gerger, H., Nüesch, E., Trelle, S., Znoj, H., ... & Cuijpers, P. (2016). Comparative efficacy of seven psychotherapeutic interventions for patients with depression: a network meta-analysis. Focus, 14(2), 229-243.
Castelnuovo, G. (2017). New and old adventures of clinical health psychology in the twenty-first century: standing on the shoulders of giants. Frontiers in psychology, 8, 1214.
Hofmann, S. G., Asnaani, A., Vonk, I. J., Sawyer, A. T., & Fang, A. (2012). The efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Cognitive therapy and research, 36(5), 427-440.
Hughes, A. M., Gordon, R., Chalder, T., Hirsch, C. R., & Moss?Morris, R. (2016). Maximizing the potential impact of experimental research into cognitive processes in health psychology: A systematic approach to material development. British journal of health psychology, 21(4), 764-780.
Kirkham, J. G., Choi, N., & Seitz, D. P. (2016). Meta?analysis of problem solving therapy for the treatment of major depressive disorder in older adults. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 31(5), 526-535.
Lenz, A. S., Hall, J., & Bailey Smith, L. (2016). Meta-analysis of group mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for decreasing symptoms of acute depression. The Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 41(1), 44-70.
Linde, K., Rücker, G., Sigterman, K., Jamil, S., Meissner, K., Schneider, A., & Kriston, L. (2015). Comparative effectiveness of psychological treatments for depressive disorders in primary care: network meta-analysis. BMC family practice, 16(1), 103.
...Australian Transgender- The Behaviors and Acts Leading up to a Transition
Transgender, as a terminology, alludes to individuals whose sense of their gender is different from what would be anticipated based on the sex individualities that they are naturally born with. A transgender individual may identify as a trans woman, which means a person who has a self-concept that is female, with the endeavor to or has transitioned to living as a woman after being born with male genitalia. On the other hand, an individual who identifies as a trans man implies having a male self-concept despite being born with female genitalia. Furthermore, an individual who is non-binary does not identify stringently as a woman or a man (Sangganjanavanich, 2016).
Starting as early as a child, a transgender individual may have continuous and perpetual feelings of gender dysphoria. This refers to a detachment between the individual's primary as well as……
Bockting, W. O., Miner, M. H., Swinburne Romine, R. E., Hamilton, A., & Coleman, E. (2013). Stigma, mental health, and resilience in an online sample of the US transgender population. American journal of public health, 103(5), 943-951.
Bockting, W., Coleman, E., Deutsch, M. B., Guillamon, A., Meyer, I., Meyer III, W., ... & Ettner, R. (2016). Adult development and quality of life of transgender and gender-nonconforming people. Current opinion in endocrinology, diabetes, and obesity, 23(2), 188.
Catelan, R. F., Costa, A. B., & Lisboa, C. S. D. M. (2017). Psychological interventions for transgender persons: a scoping review. International Journal of Sexual Health, 29(4), 325-337.
Divan, V., Cortez, C., Smelyanskaya, M., & Keatley, J. (2016). Transgender social inclusion and equality: a pivotal path to development. Journal of the International AIDS Society, 19, 20803.
Drydakis, N. (2020). Trans People, Transitioning, Mental Health, Life, and Job Satisfaction. Handbook of Labor, Human Resources and Population Economics, 1-22.
Glynn, T. R., & van den Berg, J. J. (2017). A systematic review of interventions to reduce problematic substance use among transgender individuals: A call to action. Transgender Health, 2(1), 45-59.
Grossman, A. H., Haney, A. P., Edwards, P., Alessi, E. J., Ardon, M., & Howell, T. J. (2009). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth talk about experiencing and coping with school violence: A qualitative study. Journal of LGBT Youth, 6(1), 24-46.
Jellestad, L., Jäggi, T., Corbisiero, S., Schaefer, D. J., Jenewein, J., Schneeberger, A., ... & Garcia Nuñez, D. (2018). Quality of life in transitioned trans persons: a retrospective cross-sectional cohort study. BioMed research international, 2018.
… help prevent the proliferation of WMDs throughout the world. [2: Joseph Chinyong Liow, "The Mahathir administration's war against Islamic militancy: operational and ideological challenges." Australian Journal of International Affairs 58, no. 2 (2004), 242.]
The Development of a Strategy
As Mauroni points out, the plan to stop ……
Arnold, Aaron and Daniel Salisbury, “The Long Arm,” Belfer Center, 2019. https://www.belfercenter.org/publication/long-arm
Carter, Ashton B. "Overhauling counterproliferation." Technology in Society 26, no. 2-3 (2004): 257-269.
The Commission to Assess the Organization of the Federal Government to Combat the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction. “Combating Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction,” Washington, D.C., 1999.
FBI. “COINTELPRO.” https://vault.fbi.gov/cointel-pro
FBI Counterproliferation Center. “About.” https://www.fbi.gov/about/leadership-and-structure/national-security-branch/fbi-counterproliferation-center
Fischer, Rowena Rege. “Guide to the Study of Intelligence: Counterproliferation,” Journal of U.S. Intelligence Studies 21, no. 1 (Winter 2014-15), 78-82.
Liow, Joseph Chinyong. "The Mahathir administration's war against Islamic militancy: operational and ideological challenges." Australian Journal of International Affairs 58, no. 2 (2004): 241-256.
Manchikanti, Laxmaiah, Jaya Sanapati, Ramsin M. Benyamin, Sairam Atluri, Alan D. Kaye, and Joshua A. Hirsch. "Reframing the prevention strategies of the opioid crisis: focusing on prescription opioids, fentanyl, and heroin epidemic." Pain physician 21, no. 4 (2018): 309-326.
...Australian Public Relations
Introduction: Public Safety
The aim of the public safety sector is the provision of products and services geared at safeguarding individuals and their property. Over 286,000 individuals are employed in this sector, which can be segregated into the following two key segments: commercial and governmental organizations. Federal, regional, state, and local level governmental public safety organizations agencies have outnumbered commercial ones all through the course of the past decade. Most individuals working in this sector are hired by governmental organizations, including the fire department, police department, and sheriff's department. Some federal level public safety institutions include the CIA, FBI, Department of Homeland Security, and Border Patrol (Vault, 2020).
The most predominant public safety jobs are connected with the police: police officers, detectives/ investigators, or correctional officers. EMT personnel, highway patrol officials, and firefighters make up another major public safety employee cluster. The majority of private-sector safety personnel include……
Achim, A. C. (2014). Risk management issues in policing: from safety risks faced by law enforcement agents to occupational health. Procedia Economics and Finance, 15, 1671-1676.
Bornstein, A. (2005). Antiterrorist policing in New York City after 9/11: Comparing perspectives on a complex process. Human Organization, 64(1), 52-61. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/44127004?seq=1
Buyantseva, L. V., Tulchinsky, M., Kapalka, G. M., Chinchilli, V. M., Qian, Z., Gillio, R., et al. (2007). Evolution of lower respiratory symptoms in New York police officers after 9/11: A prospective longitudinal study. J Occup Environ Med, 49, 310–17.
Homeland Security. (2005). Grand reform: The faster and smarter funding for first responders. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Lippmann, M., Cohen, M. D., & Chen, L-C. (2015). Health effects of World Trade Center (WTC) Dust: An unprecedented disaster with inadequate risk management. Crit Rev Toxicol, 45(6), 492-530. DOI: 10.3109/10408444.2015.1044601
NYPD. (2020). About NYPD. Retrieved from https://www1.nyc.gov/site/nypd/about/about-nypd/about-nypd-landing.page
OHS. (2008). Occupational Health and Safety Code of Practice. Australian Government.
Vault. (2020). Overview. Retrieved from https://www.vault.com/industries-professions/industries/public-safety
A. History of drugs, cross-cultural perspective
1. Opium wars (ACLU, 2020)
2. Since Nixon, the modern “war on drugs” (Pearl, 2018)
3. History of drug use in different societies (ACLU, 2020)
B. History of government intervention in the private lives of individuals via drug policy (ACLU, 2020); Baumbauer, 2012).
C. Effects of the war on drugs
1. Is it effective? Quantify the deaths related to the WOD, as well as the social entropy in communities, families, and within individuals (London, 2005; Pearl, 2018)
2. Criminalization distracting attention from more central concerns linked to capitalism, psychological wellbeing, and healthcare (ACLU, 2020; Coyne & Hall, 2017; London, 2005).
3. National sovereignty issues and global perspective (Coomber, Moyle, Belackova, et al., 2018; Von Hoffman, 2016).
II. Theoretical Discussion
A. Race, class, power perspectives (Netherland & Hansen, 2017; Putt, Payne & Milner 2005; Taylor, Buchanan & Aynes, 2016).
B. Government, public……
ACLU (2020). Against drug prohibition. Retrieved from: https://www.aclu.org/other/against-drug-prohibition
“America is At War,” (n.d.). Retrieved from: https://web.stanford.edu/class/e297c/poverty_prejudice/paradox/htele.html
Bambauer, J. Y. (2012). How the war on drugs distorts privacy law. Stanford Law Review 62(2012). Retrieved from: https://www.stanfordlawreview.org/online/how-the-war-on-drugs-distorts-privacy-law/
Benson, B.L., Kim., I., Rasmussen, D.W., et al. (1992, 2006). Is property crime caused by drug use or by drug enforcement policy? Applied Economics 24(7): 679-692.
Best, D., Irving, J. & Albertson, K. (2016). Recovery and desistance: what the emerging recovery movement in the alcohol and drug area can learn from models of desistance from offending. Addiction Research & Theory 25(1): 1-10.
Coomber, R., Moyle, L., Belackova, V., et al. (2018). The burgeoning recognition and accommodation of the social supply of drugs in international criminal justice systems: An eleven-nation comparative overview. International Journal of Drug Policy 58(2018): 98-103.
Coyne, C.J. & Hall, A. R. (2017). Four decades and counting. CATO Institute. Retrieved from: https://www.cato.org/publications/policy-analysis/four-decades-counting-continued-failure-war-drugs
Farabee, D., Prendergast, M. & Anglin, M.D. (1998). The effectiveness of coerced treatment for drug-abusing offenders. 62 Fed. Probation 3 (1998).
...Australian Health Communications: Minority Youth Substance Abuse Solutions
Introduction: Why a Public Health Campaign is Needed
The rise of the opioid epidemic in America has been well documented by researchers (Nelson, Juurlink & Perrone, 2015; Manchikanti et al., 2012). As millions of youths are at risk of succumbing to substance abuse via street drugs and opioids, the need for a public health campaign is evident (Murthy, 2016). The issue of reducing the spread of substance abuse among minority youths is particularly important because a high percentage of those who become addicted to or substance abusers is found in minority populations and particularly high among Asian Americans (Winter, 2016). In order to prevent the spread of substance abuse among minority youth, a public health campaign should be developed and implemented.
A Key Element of Health Communication
A key element of health communication that is essential for a public health leader dealing with……
Nelson, L. S., Juurlink, D. N., & Perrone, J. (2015). Addressing the opioid epidemic. Jama, 314(14), 1453-1454.
Manchikanti, L., Fellows, B., Janata, J. W., Pampati, V., Grider, J. S., & Boswell, M. V. (2012). Opioid epidemic in the United States. Pain Physician, 15(3 Suppl), ES9-38.
Murthy, V. H. (2016). Ending the opioid epidemic—a call to action. New England Journal of Medicine, 375(25), 2413-2415.
Smit-Kroner, C. & Brumby, S. (2015). Farmers sun exposure, skin protection, and public health campaigns: An Australian Perspective. Preventive Medicine Reports 2, 602-607.
Velasquez, A., & LaRose, R. (2015). Youth collective activism through social media: The role of collective efficacy. New Media & Society, 17(6), 899-918.
Winter, T. (2016). Addiction among different races. Retrieved from https://sunrisehouse.com/addiction-demographics/different-races/
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