A. What is Islamophobia?
1. Fear or mistrust of Muslim culture or people
2. Manifests in the media and public discourse.
B. History of Islamophobia
1. Christian crusades
2. Islamophobia since the 20th century
C. Consequences of Islamophobia
1. Political instability
2. Economic instability
3. Unnecessary hostility and antagonism
D. Thesis Statement: Islamophobia can be traced back to the earliest conflicts between Christianity and Islam, and has resulted in a distorted view of human history politics, and society.
II. History of Islamophobia
A. Early instances of Islamophobia
1. The crusades and Spanish Inquisition
2. Rise of the Ottoman Empire
B. Fall of the Ottoman Empire
1. After centuries of fragmentation
2. Industrial Age and oil
3. Israel and Palestine
III. Rise of Islamophobia in 20th Century
A. Iran and Iraq
1. CIA, the Shah, and the Ayatollah
2. Iran/Iraq war
3. Hostage crisis
B. Rise of Islamist terrorism
IV. September 11 and Beyond
A. Framing the Axis of Evil
B. Islamophobia in America
C. Islamophobia in Europe
A. Problems with Islamophobia
B. Tempering Islamophobia
A. The term Islamophobia may be new, but European societies had long fostered mistrust towards Semitic peoples.
B. After the Moors were ousted from Spain and the Ottoman Empire grew, European societies became increasingly hostile towards Islam and Muslim people.
C. After the fall of the Ottoman Empire in the 20th century, Islamophobia reached new heights, due in part to the discovery of oil.
D. Thesis: Islamist terrorism is certainly a global problem, but Islamophobia is an immature and ineffective response.
A. Christianity and Islam have butted heads for centuries, and not just for religious reasons.
B. Muslim and Christian kingdoms vied for political and economic power throughout the Mediterranean.
C. The fall of the Ottoman Empire in the 20th century coincided with the rise of the petroleum economy, which created an uncomfortable relationship between Muslim and Western powers.
III. Islamophobia in the 20th century
A. Political and social instability throughout the Middle East led to the rise of fundamentalism and Islamist terrorism.
B. Islamophobia grew out of a genuine concern about terrorism, especially given the precarious dependency on oil-producing Muslim nations.
C. Iran hostage crisis, the Mujahideen in Afghanistan, anti-Israel terrorist attacks, and several other 20th century global issues gave rise to an entrenched view that Islam was an enemy of world peace
IV. September 11 and Beyond
A. Islamophobia became commonplace in the aftermath of September 11.
B. In Europe and the United States, innocent people were targeted on the basis of their ethnicity and religion, as mass hysteria ensued.
C. The media and the rhetoric used by politicians contributed to the rise of Islamophobia.
D. Islamophobia only worsened the problems related to terrorism, as ordinary Muslims started to see the West as being hostile.
A. While it seems that there is no hope for world peace, it may still be possible to create a meaningful dialogue to end Islamophobia.
B. To end Islamophobia, Muslims around the world also need a constructive agenda for reducing the prevalence of fundamentalism and terrorist organizations.