...Americas Colonial America was a diverse hodge-podge of religious communities. The Quakers had been given Pennsylvania by William Penn, whose father had held ties with the King of England (Fantel). The Puritans were in New England. Baptists established themselves in the South. Catholics had been in the Northern territories and in the Southwest well before the Protestant surge, and they also established the first Catholic state in Maryland—before it was later taken over by Protestants who banned Catholicism (Laux). In short, there was little religious unity broadly speaking, but religion nonetheless played an important role in the structuring of society and class when it came to local organization. Hawthorne and Melville—the two premier authors of the 19th century—described this experience of social stratification within a religious context fairly well. But there are numerous signs and examples of how it existed and persisted. This paper will show that religion was used as……
Fantel, Hans. William Penn: Apostle of Dissent. NY: William Morrow & Co., 1974.
Graham, Michael. "Posish Plots: Protestant Fears in Early Colonial Maryland, 1676-1689." The Catholic historical review 79.2 (1993): 197-216.
Holton, W. Forced Founders: Indians, Debtors, Slaves, and the Making of the American Revolution in Virginia. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1999.
Laux, John. Church History. New York: Benziger Brothers, 1933.
Melville, Herman. Clarel. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015005201424&view=1up&seq=9
Milder, R. Herman Melville. New York: Columbia University Press,1988.
Pyle, Ralph E., and James D. Davidson. "The origins of religious stratification in colonial America." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 42.1 (2003): 57-75.
...Americas Captain America: The First Avenger
Camera angles determine how an audience interacts with a character in a film they are watching. This makes shot angles and camera angles some of the most significant aspects of a production. The emotions a character is going through can be highlighted by having the camera focus on them. When they are vulnerable, the camera can focus on them from a high angle. Further, the kinds of cameras employed in the film are important since scenes are shot with different cameras and then edited together. In Captain America: The First Avenger, the emphasis is on the key viewpoints and elements so as to inspire different emotions in the audience. It is possible that a greater perception of space as portrayed in the film leads to the audience being better able to empathize with the film’s audience. This is especially true when you consider the fact……
Captain America: The First Avenger. Directed by Joe Johnston, Paramount Pictures, July 19 2011.
Lotman, Elen. “Exploring the ways cinematography affects viewers’ perceived empathy towards onscreen characters.” Baltic Screen Media Review, Vol. 4, 2016, pp. 89-105.
Stam, Robert., Burgoyne, Robert., & Flitterman-Lewis, Sandy. New vocabularies in film semiotics. London, New York: Routledge, 1992.
...Americas Hospital Corporation of America
Hospital Corporation of America (HCA) is not only one of the country’s largest hospital companies, but it also happens to be one of the most notable healthcare services providers in the country. At present, HCA manages more than 170 healthcare facilities offering a wide range of services across the nation. This for-profit organization is headquartered in Nashville, Tennessee. It is important to note that to remain relevant in the increasingly dynamic healthcare industry, organizations such as HCA ought to have the relevant strategies in place to address the various needs of citizens going forward. This text assesses the readiness of HCA to address the healthcare needs of citizens in the next decade. The paper also compares HCA to Singapore Airlines in an attempt to evaluate its readiness to tackle inherent marketplace challenges.
HCA operates outpatient healthcare facilities, psychiatric hospitals, acute care hospitals, and general……
Hospital Corporation of America - HCA (2019). Who We Are. Retrieved from https://hcahealthcare.com/about/
Mincer, J. (2018). Hospital Operator HCA Spends Big to Keep Nurses on Board. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-hca-labor/hospital-operator-hca-spends-big-to-keep-nurses-on-board-idUSKBN1I510F
Yahoo Finance (2019). HCA Healthcare, Inc. (HCA). Retrieved from https://finance.yahoo.com/quote/HCA/profile?p=HCA
Gangs in America have formed the subject of a large number of research works, thereby becoming a growth sector (Sanchez-Jankowski, 2003). The definition of the term ‘gangs’ is: an ongoing informal or formal group, party, or alliance of at least three individuals whose primary activities include perpetrating at least one of the crimes listed below: 1) attacking using a lethal weapon, 2) murder, 3) burglary, 4) selling or holding in possession for production, selling, offering for sale, transporting, or offering to produce controlled substances, 5) arson, 6) shooting at any occupied automobile or inhabited house, 7) intimidating victims and witnesses, and 8) carrying out a grand robbery of a vehicle, vessel, or trailer, in addition to sharing a common sign, symbol, or name, whose members have separately or, as a group, previously or currently participated in some pattern of hang crime (California Department of Justice, 1993).
California Department of Justice. (1993). Gangs 2000: A call to action. Sacramento, California: Department of Justice.
Department of Public Security. (2007). Definition and classification of gangs: Executive summary. Washington, DC: Organization of American States.
Sanchez-Jankowski, M. (2003). Gangs and social change. Theoretical Criminology, 7(2), 191-216. DOI: 10.1177/1362480603007002413.
...Americas “Where Do We Go From Here?”
Democracy was meant to be government by the rule of the people. Athens is most famous for being the ancient city-state to represent democratic government and in a way the city-state was best situated for democracy: the people were educated and keen on performing their civic duty—at least for a generation or two. By the time the playwright Aristophanes came along, some Athenians were shirking their civic duty to the extent that the satirist penned his most attack on Athenian complacency. The point is that democracy is only as effective as the people within the community are at performing their civic duty. When the very concept of civic-mindedness is lost or when the community becomes so large that it is impossible for people to govern directly, the concept of democracy can become a screen hiding a much more nefarious system of power like what……
Dahl, Robert. On Democracy.
Ferejohn, John. Is Inequality a Threat to Democracy?
Friedman, Milton. Capitalism and Freedom. University of Chicago Press.
Mansbridge, Jane. On the Importance of Getting Things Done. PS, 2012.
Runciman, David. The Confidence Trap. Princeton University Press.
...Americas Socialization into Militarization
Life definitely seems a lot more militarized now that social distancing norms have become common place and the National Guard is doing its part to make sure people are adhering to stay at home orders. All the workers at the grocery store are now wearing masks (even though they were not two months ago—so it does not make sense why all of a sudden now it is important that they all wear masks as though it is somehow keeping everyone safer or as though the mask itself was a threat to the virus and the virus was going to back away because it saw a mask). The ridiculousness with which people are simply obeying all these insane rules and orders looks very much to me like how a truly militarized nation would act. Orders come, they are not questioned, and no one says anything. Of course, if……
Farberov, S. (2020). Moment Idaho mom arrested. Retrieved from https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-8245221/Idaho-mom-arrested-protesting-coronavirus-lockdown-closed-playground.html
WDRB. (2020). Louisville woman arrested at Kroger for violating self-quarantine order after COVID-19 diagnosis. Retrieved from https://www.wdrb.com/news/louisville-woman-arrested-at-kroger-for-violating-self-quarantine-order-after-covid-19-diagnosis/article_ed19df76-8978-11ea-afd8-33dd85093a5e.html
...Americas Taking a Knee and the Cultural Problem at the Heart of Race
The recent riots over the death of George Floyd has stemmed not so much from the killing of an unarmed black man by police but rather from the perception that the black community in general has been marginalized and oppressed for years. High profile celebrities like LeBron James, Steph Curry and Colin Kaepernick have supported the Black Lives Matter (BLM) movement, as have many black communities across the nation. However, for blacks and other races and ethnicities in the military, the desire to speak out against oppression while at the same time honoring and respecting the flag and the rule of law has presented a paradox of sorts. On the one hand, taking a knee during the National Anthem became a sign of protest for oppressed voices, spearheaded by Kaepernick and later endorsed by Nike, other celebrities……
Carbado, Devon W. \\\\\\"Racial naturalization.\\\\\\" American Quarterly 57.3 (2005): 633-658.
Graber, Shane M., Ever J. Figueroa, and Krishnan Vasudevan. \\\\\\"Oh, Say, Can You Kneel: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Newspaper Coverage of Colin Kaepernick’s Racial Protest.\\\\\\" Howard Journal of Communications (2019): 1-17.
Morrison, Toni. “Recitatif.” Skin Deep. Doubleday, 1995.
Naber, Nadine. “Osama’s Daughters: Cultural Racism, Nation-Based Racism, and the Intersectionality of Oppressions after 9/11.” Review of Women’s Studies, 5 (2009), 50-63.
Sabo, Samantha, et al. \\\\\\"Everyday violence, structural racism and mistreatment at the US– Mexico border.\\\\\\" Social Science & Medicine 109 (2014): 66-74.
...Americas The Principles of Machiavelli in American Policy
The first chapter in The Practice of American Public Policymaking lays out what the book examines in the succeeding chapters. First, Briggs and Helms (2015) define policymaking as “the activities, actors, institutions, practices, and technologies that combine to ‘deliver the goods’ to the American people” (p. 3). Public policy is defined as “the art and science of producing results” (p. 3). Thus, the book is primarily about American public policymaking and the focus is on conception and practice, which means that both the development and the implementation of policy are covered in the following chapters. Implementation is especially important because it refers to the process of monitoring and evaluating policy. Policy and management should be part and parcel, according to the authors as “there is no policy without implementation” and there is no awareness of the success of a policy without evaluation (Briggs……
Briggs, S., & Helms, L. B. (2015). The practice of American public policymaking. New York: Routlege Taylor & Francis Group.
DeLeon, P., & DeLeon, L. (2002). What ever happened to policy implementation? An alternative approach. Journal of public administration research and theory, 12(4), 467-492.
Mizaur, D. G. (1993). Quality government is government of the people, by the people, for the people. Public Productivity & Management Review, 371-377.
...Americas Latino families in USA and COVID 19
Latino families in the US are being hit hard by the coronavirus pandemic scare that has put most of the country on lockdown for more than two months. The problems that Latinos face are numerous: on the one hand, the virus is impacting the health of this community in a big way, with 16.6% of U.S. COVID-19 deaths being among Latinos, according to data from the CDC (Despres). But they are also being hit economically as the lockdown is affecting their ability to do business, which is largely dependent upon contractual work, restaurant work, hotel work and other service-related jobs (Manuel et al.). Because the service industry has been decimated by the lockdown, Latino communities are losing jobs, getting pay cuts, and being sidelined from work. This has created an additional hardship for the community on top of the health scare that is……
Despres, Cliff. “Coronavirus Case Rates and Death Rates for Latinos in the UnitedStates.” Salud America, 20 Apr 2020. https://salud-america.org/coronavirus-case-rates-and-death-rates-for-latinos-in-the-united-states/
Garcia, J. & Hellerstein, E. (2020). Undocumented workers face obstacles qualifying for benefits during the pandemic. Retrieved from https://calmatters.org/california-divide/2020/04/undocumented-workers-benefits-coronavirus/
Labor Council for Latin American Advancement. “The Impact of COVID 19 on Latinos in the US.” https://assets.website-files.com/5e5f2e17e96a34dcf9b586b4/5e984eab4dd4ffba712e7906_COVID%20_%20Report%20%5BFinal%5D%20for%20web.pdf
Manuel, Jens M. et al. “U.S. Latinos among hardest hit by pay cuts, job losses due to coronavirus.” PewResearch, 3 Apr 2020. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2020/04/03/u-s-latinos-among-hardest-hit-by-pay-cuts-job-losses-due-to-coronavirus/
Tappe, Anneken. “30 million Americans have filed initial unemployment claims since mid-March.” CNN, 30 Apr 2020. https://www.cnn.com/2020/04/30/economy/unemployment-benefits-coronavirus/index.html
… his 1962 speech that the presence of Soviet missiles in Cuba represented “an explicit threat to the peace and security of all the Americas” (Kennedy). The difference for white Americans and African Americans was that white Americans lived in fear during the Cold War, while African Americans ……
Kennedy, John F. “Speech, 22 October 1962.” https://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/jfkcubanmissilecrisis.html
Skrentny, John David. "The effect of the Cold War on African-American civil rights: America and the world audience, 1945-1968." Theory and Society 27.2 (1998): 237-285.
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