Phobias are a kind of anxiety disorder that can make an individual to experience extreme irrational fear regarding a situation, object, or living creature. Phobias should not be confused with normal fears since phobias are linked to a particular situation or object and they are persistent for 6 or more months. In this paper, we will describe what a phobia is and offer the differentiation of phobias from normal fear. We will then provide the diagnosis criteria for phobias as indicated in the DSM-5 manual. The 4Ds will be analyzed as they relate to phobia and the models of abnormality will be discussed. Treatment, history, culture, and prognosis will form the later part of the paper.
According to Sutherland, Middleton, Ornstein, Lawson, and Vickers (2016) a phobia is defined as a type of anxiety disorder that makes an individual experience extreme irrational fear about a living creature, situation,……
Campos, D., Mira, A., Bretón-López, J., Castilla, D., Botella, C., Baños, R. M., & Quero, S. (2018). The acceptability of an internet-based exposure treatment for flying phobia with and without therapist guidance: patients’ expectations, satisfaction, treatment preferences, and usability. Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment, 14, 879.
Carleton, R. N., Thibodeau, M. A., Weeks, J. W., Teale Sapach, M. J. N., McEvoy, P. M., Horswill, S. C., & Heimberg, R. G. (2014). Comparing short forms of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale. Psychological assessment, 26(4), 1116-1126. doi:10.1037/a0037063
Erceg-Hurn, D. M., & McEvoy, P. M. (2018). Bigger is better: Full-length versions of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and Social Phobia Scale outperform short forms at assessing treatment outcome. Psychological assessment, 30(11), 1512-1526. doi:10.1037/pas0000601
Goetter, E. M., Frumkin, M. R., Palitz, S. A., Swee, M. B., Baker, A. W., Bui, E., & Simon, N. M. (2018). Barriers to mental health treatment among individuals with social anxiety disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. Psychological Services, No Pagination Specified-No Pagination Specified. doi:10.1037/ser0000254
Halldorsdottir, T., & Ollendick, T. H. (2016). Long-term outcomes of brief, intensive CBT for specific phobias: The negative impact of ADHD symptoms. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 84(5), 465-471. doi:10.1037/ccp0000088
Hirsch, J. A. (2018). Integrating Hypnosis with Other Therapies for Treating Specific Phobias: A Case Series. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 60(4), 367-377.
Leitenberg, H., Agras, W. S., Barlow, D. H., & Oliveau, D. C. (1969). Contribution of selective positive reinforcement and therapeutic instructions to systematic desensitization therapy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 74(1), 113-118. doi:10.1037/h0027063
Probst, T., Berger, T., Meyer, B., Späth, C., Schröder, J., Hohagen, F., . . . Klein, J. P. (2019). Social phobia moderates the outcome in the EVIDENT study: A randomized controlled trial on an Internet-based psychological intervention for mild to moderate depressive symptoms [Press release]
...Administration Protecting U.S. Skies and Airports: Israeli Security Methods in U.S. Airports
As Gaines and Miller (2013) point out, American security forces focus on finding weapons while Israeli security focuses on finding terrorists. The difference gets to the heart of why the Israeli system is so much more efficient. However, Israel has a population of 8 million—less than that of New York City. And New York City is home to just one of many hubs and international airports in the U.S. Approximately 17 million travelers flew into Ben-Gurion Airport in Israel last year, as well—which is about a third of the number that flew into JFK (Zeff, 2017; NBC, 2018). Because of the sheer volume of travelers throughout the U.S., which dwarfs Israel’s numbers completely, the question is whether Israel’s methods can actually scale and work in a nation as big and open to the rest of the world as the……
Gaines, L. K., & Miller, R. L. (2013). Criminal justice in action. Nelson Education.
Haaretz & Reuters. (2017). U.S. Airport Security Is Becoming a Bit More Israeli Today –Here\\\\\\\\\\\\'s What You Need to Know. Retrieved from https://www.haaretz.com/us-news/u-s-airport-security-rules-are-changing-today-here-s-what-you-need-to-know-1.5460568
Hasisi, B., Margalioth, Y., & Orgad, L. (2012). Ethnic profiling in airport screening: Lessons from Israel, 1968–2010. American law and economics review, 14(2), 517-560.
Lowrey, A. (2010, January 8). Foreign policy: The costs of Israel level security [Opinion]. NPR. Retrieved from https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=122352039
NBC. (2018). NYC-Area Airports Set Record for Passenger Traffic, Rank Among Worst in U.S. for On-Time Performance. Retrieved from https://www.nbcnewyork.com/news/local/JFK-LaGuardia-Newark-Airports-Record-Passenger-Traffic-Worst-On-Time-Performance-475559363.html
Zeff, M. (2017). 2016 record year for Israeli air traffic. Retrieved from https://www.jpost.com/Business-and-Innovation/2016-record-year-for-Israeli-air-traffic-477180
Starbucks Corporation was established in 1971 and it is headquartered in Seattle, Washington. The company specializes in roasting, marketing, and retailing specialty coffee all over the world and accounts for about 3% of coffee sourcing globally. Serving 78 unique markets, the company is one of the biggest coffee roasters in the world and serves millions of patrons every day from its 30,000 plus stores around the globe. This article looks at how Starbucks has approached and operationalized the concept of sustainability.
In 2016, Starbucks floated a sustainability bond with the goal of financing coffee growing projects in various regions so as to promote environmental sustainability and socio-economic growth. Starbucks Corporation followed the guidelines presented by the Green Bond Principles 2016 in issuing its Starbucks Corporation Sustainability Bond Framework - also referred to simply as the “Framework”. The proceeds of the bond were directed at financing and refinancing……
Bruhn-Hansen, S. (2012). Corporate Social Responsibility–A case study of Starbucks’ CSR: communication through its corporate website. Unpublished master’s thesis, Illinois State University. Retrieved from http://pure. au. dk/portal/files/45282206/ba_thesis. pdf.
Harnrungchalotorn, S., & Phayonlerd, Y. (2016). Starbucks with Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR):“How Starbucks succeeds in a business world with CSR” (Doctoral dissertation, Master Thesis. Faculty Board of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT Business Administration).
Juneja, P. (2018). PESTLE Analysis of Starbucks. Retrieved November 21, 2019, from https://www.managementstudyguide.com/swot-analysis-of-unilever.htm .
Khalamayzer, A. (2017, November 16). How Starbucks brewed a stronger sustainability bond. Retrieved November 21, 2019, from https://www.greenbiz.com/article/how-starbucks-brewed-stronger-sustainability-bond .
Steven Li. (2019, July 5). Is Starbucks actually serious about environmental sustainability? Retrieved November 21, 2019, from https://therising.co/2019/07/05/is-starbucks-actually-serious-about-environmental-sustainability/ .
Sustainalytics. (2019). Second-Party Opinion Starbucks Sustainability Bond. Sustainalytics Second-Party Opinion Review.
...Administration In the present day intensely competitive marketplace, businesses must incessantly enhance the level of quality of their products and services in order to gain competitive advantages. Corporations have to attain and capitalize on their resources in an efficacious manner. As a result, it is of the best interest for the corporations to improve the job performances of their staff by carrying out training and education as one of the fundamental measures to increase productivity. Training and education is a significant component in human resource growth and development for enhancement of performance and organizational efficacy. In addition, training and education is a wide ranging aspect necessitated to attain most output and productivity from the human assets as it is utilized to enhance or increase activity that is linked with general performance requirements of the staff and the organization in its entirety.
The main objective of the research is to determine whether……
Becker, B. E., Huselid, M. A., & Beatty, R. W. (2009). The differentiated workforce: Translating talent into strategic impact. Harvard Business Press.
Brayfield, A.H. and Crockett, W.H. (1955). Employee attitudes and employee performance. Psychological bulletin, 52(5), p.396.
Dessler, G. and Varrkey, B. (2005). Human Resource Management, 15e. India: Pearson Education India.
Falola, H.O., Osibanjo, A.O. and Ojo, I.S. (2014). Effectiveness of training and development on employees' performance and organisation competitiveness in the nigerian banking industry. Bulletin of the Transilvania University of bra?ov, 7(1), p.161.
Halidu, S.G. (2015). The Impact of Training and Development on Workers’ Productivity. Review Public Administration Management, 3(160).
Keep, E. (2014). Corporate training strategies: the vital component? New Perspectives, pp.109-125.
Kothari, C. R. (2004). Research methodology: Methods and techniques. New Age International.
Lussier, R. N. (2010). Human relations in organizations: Applications and skill building. McGraw-Hill.
...Administration Keywords: corona virus, coronavirus, covid, covid-19
The novel Coronavirus COVID-19 appeared in China in 2019, quickly having a much more serious impact than prior evolutions of the coronavirus. As it began to spread from Wuhan, the district in China where it originated, to other parts of China and to other countries, the world began to realize that the local epidemic could become a pandemic. Efforts to contain the spread were varied and had mixed results, but Coronavirus eventually hit the United States and began to spread locally. In this article, we describe what Coronavirus is, what COVID-19 is, where it originated, where it has spread, transmission rates, mortality, and efforts to contain the spread of the disease. Because this is a constantly evolving situation, this article should be used in conjunction with developing news to fully understand the issue.
Almost everyone in the United States is aware that……
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Key Facts.” CDC. 12 March 2020. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/symptoms-testing/share-facts.html?CDC_AA_refVal=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cdc.gov%2Fcoronavirus%2F2019-ncov%2Fabout%2Fshare-facts.html . Accessed 16 March 2020.
Newey, S. and Gulland, A. “What Is Coronavirus, How Did It Start and Could the Outbreak Grow Bigger?” The Telegraph. 16 March 2020. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2020/03/16/what-coronavirus-how-start-outbreak-pandemic-covid-19/ . Accessed 16 March 2020.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration. “Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) Frequently Asked Questions.” FDA. 2020. https://www.fda.gov/emergency-preparedness-and-response/mcm-issues/coronavirus-disease-2019-covid-19-frequently-asked-questions . Accessed 16 March 2020.
World Health Organization. “Coronavirus.” WHO. 2020. https://www.who.int/health-topics/coronavirus . Accessed 16 March 2020.
...Administration Policy on Shift Swapping
Shift swapping is a common practice in modern workplaces both in the public and private sectors. Organizations including federal agencies have established shift swapping policies through which employees engage in shift swap. This practice has positive impacts as it enhances employee retention and performance. Generally, shift swapping provides a framework for hourly workers to shift their working hours in order to response to pressing issues such as family responsibilities (Disselkamp, 2013). In addition to enhancing employee retention and performance, shift swapping also contributes to workplace flexibility. For this federal agency, shift swapping is a common practice for part- and full-time employees. However, some full-time employees have abused the policy, which has resulted in significant negative impacts such as the recent incident of a part-time employee who was injured at the workplace following shift swap. This report examines the timecard scandal and abuse of the agency’s shift……
Bowen, G.A. (2009). Document Analysis as a Qualitative Research Method. Qualitative Research Journal, 9(2), 27-40. DOI: 10.3316/QRJ0902027
Disselkamp, L. (Ed.). (2013). Workforce Asset Management Book of Knowledge. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Golden, L. (2015, April 9). Irregular Work Scheduling and Its Consequences. Retrieved May 20, 2020, from https://www.epi.org/publication/irregular-work-scheduling-and-its-consequences/
Paychex. (2019, November 13). How to Manage and Minimize Trading Shifts at Work. Retrieved May 12, 2020, from https://www.paychex.com/articles/payroll-taxes/how-to-manage-and-minimize-trading-shifts-at-work
...Administration A Personal Philosophy of Education
In sum, I believe the long-range impact that educational leadership should have on stakeholders and on the community includes providing young learners with the critical thinking skills they will need to succeed in the 21st century workplace as well as developing good citizens that actively participate in the political process. Today, the United States invests enormous sums in its public educational system, but these scarce taxpayer resources are being wasted without the positive long-range impact that effective leadership should have on stakeholders and on the community. Because effective leadership has been shown time and again to be inextricably associated with organizational performance, it is not surprising that there has been a growing body of scholarship devoted to this topic over the years. Drawing on this body of knowledge, it is possible to improve the effectiveness of educational leadership in a number of ways, including……
Black’s Law Dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Company.
Blakesley, S. (2011, July). Defining educational leadership in Canada\\'s Yukon Territory: \\"Hmmm, that\\'s a good question ...\\" Canadian Journal of Education, 34(1), 4-7.
Bowser, A. & Hux, A. (2014, September). The roles of site-based mentors in educational leadership programs. College Student Journal, 48(3), 468-471.
Chan, T. C. (2014, March). Educational leadership: The research agenda. New Waves, 17(1), 1-4.
Cushman, K. (2009, December). Subjects, or citizens? High school students talk about investing in their schools: If we want to know what students think, Ms. Cushman suggests that we ask them. Phi Delta Kappan, 87(4), 316.
Demirci, F. & Ozyurek, C. (2017, December). The effects of using concept cartoons in astronomy subjects on critical thinking skills among seventh grade students. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 10(2), 243.
Erstad, W. (2018, January 22). Six critical thinking skills you need to master now. Rasmussen College. Retrieved from https://www.rasmussen.edu/student-experience/college-life/critical-thinking-skills-to-master-now/ .
Litvinov, A. (2017, March 16). Forgotten purpose: Civics education in public schools. NEA Today. Retrieved from http://neatoday.org/2017/03/16/civics-education-public-schools/ .
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