The Greatest Issue Facing 21st Century Ethical Leadership
Big Brother is Watching You. -- George Orwell, 1984
The chilling but fictitious epigraph above is becoming all too real for many people around the world today. Indeed, a growing number of ……
Black’s law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Company.
Cantor, M. D. (2006, Summer). No information about me without me: Technology, privacy, and home monitoring. Generations, 30(2), 49-55.
Ethical issues facing businesses. (2020). Florida Tech. Retrieved from https://www.floridatech online.com/blog/business/the-5-biggest-ethical-issues-facing-businesses/.
Haslag, C. (2018, Fall). Technology or privacy: Should you really have to choose only one? Missouri Law Review, 83(4), 1027-1033.
Karn, R. (2019). The biggest threat to data security? Humans, of course. The Privacy Advisor. Retrieved from https://iapp.org/news/a/the-biggest-threat-to-data-security-humans-of-course/ .
Sharma, P. (2017, June). Organizational culture as a predictor of job satisfaction: The role of age and gender. Journal of Contemporary Management Issues, 22(1), 35-40.
Taslitz, A. E. (2009, Spring). The Fourth Amendment in the twenty-first century: Technology, privacy, and human emotions. Law and Contemporary Problems, 65(2), 125-131.
… if they cannot easily achieve it on their own, self-directed learning is going to be more of a problem than a boon.
Knowles (1984) identified four principles that should be applied to adult learning and that the teacher should consider when evaluating students who are being taught … adult learners are more actively engaged in acquiring and applying the knowledge rather than simply trying to memorize information for a test (Knowles, 1984).
These principles provided from Knowles show that when it comes to teaching adults at the university level, the instructor should be considering how ……
Fenwick, T. J., & Parsons, J. (2009). The art of evaluation: A resource for educators and trainers. Thompson Educational Publishing.
Forrest III, S. P., & Peterson, T. O. (2006). It\\\\\\'s called andragogy. Academy of management learning & education, 5(1), 113-122.
Hase, S., & Kenyon, C. (2000). From andragogy to heutagogy. Ulti-BASE In-Site.
Howatt, W. A. (1999). Journaling to self-evaluation: A tool for adult learners. International Journal of Reality Therapy, 8(2), 32-34.
Knowles, M. (1984). Andragogy in action. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Moss, D., & Van Duzer, C. (1998). Project-Based Learning for Adult English Language Learners. ERIC Digest.
...1984 SEM 416
As XXXX points out from the onset, the attendance of nonviolence is a daily effort. This is to say that nonviolence is not an automatic response, but rather a deliberate and considered course of action. There are numerous nonviolent movements that have been active in the past. In seeking to demonstrate that nonviolence is indeed achievable, it would be prudent to highlight two of these movements. The two movements that will be discussed in this text are: Czechoslovakia’s Velvet Revolution (1989) and Poland’s Solidarity Movement (1980-1989).
Poland’s Solidarity Movement (1980-1989)
It is important to note, from the onset, that the groundwork for Poland’s Solidarity movement was set in 1946 following the parliamentary electoral fraud perpetrated by the communists. This is more so the case taking into consideration the resulting civil resistance that went on until Solidarity become prominent – and the larger society found a way of embracing……
Howlett, C.F. (1984). Nicholas Murray Butler\\\\\\'s Crusade for a Warless World. The Wisconsin Magazine of History, 67(2), 99-120.
International Center on Nonviolent Conflict – ICNC (2020). Czechoslovakia’s Velvet Revolution (1989). Retrieved from https://www.nonviolent-conflict.org/czechoslovakias-velvet-revolution-1989/
International Center on Nonviolent Conflict – ICNC (2020, January 13). A Force More Powerful - English - Denmark / Poland / Chile (high definition) [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cM695veBSUU
This paper addresses the significance of ethnic or cultural identity. It deals with the identity of socially advantaged as well as disadvantaged groups and my relation to them. Additionally, it highlights the significance of the self-identity concept. The Multidimensional Model of Racial Identity (MMRI), put forward by Smith, Sellers, Shelton and colleagues (1998), has been utilized to address all of the above aspects. The paper further explains the model, applying its dimensions to various self-identity aspects. Finally, the paper delves into the way such identity-related aspects intersect with one another.
Identity is multifaceted in nature: it may be relational and circumstantial, as well as concurrently permanent, changing and dynamic. Identity development occurs via a process of socialization. It may or may not be self-established. It is, rather frequently, employed in the labeling and categorization of persons believed to possess oppositional or dual differences. Additionally, identity represents a construct applied in creating social……
Allport, G. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Babbitt, N. (2013). Identities: Markers of power and privilege. Retrieved from https://justdessertsblog.wordpress.com/2013/09/15/identities-markers-of-power-and-privilege/
Baldwin, J. A. (1984). African self-consciousness and the mental health of African-Americans. Journal of Black Studies, 15, 177-194.
Clark, K. B. (1965). Dark ghetto. New York: Harper & Row.
Cross, W. E. (1991). Shades of black: Diversity in African-American identity. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Horowitz, R. (1939). Racial aspects of self-identification in nursery school children. Journal of Psychology, 7, 91-99.
Kambon, K. (I 992). The African personality in America: An Aitricancentered framework. Tallahassee, FL: Nubian Nation Publications
Kardiner, A., & Ovesey, L. (1951). The mark of oppression. New York: Norton.
… the change of mind in young people needed to get them to think more seriously about risk and taking responsibility. Promoted by Damon (1984) as a way to tap previously untapped potential, the idea is also found in the psycho-social theory of Bandura (2018) who showed that ……
Bandura, A. (2018). Toward a psychology of human agency: Pathways and reflections. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 13(2), 130-136.
Bickel, R., Weaver, S., Williams, T., & Lange, L. (1997). Opportunity, community, and teen pregnancy in an Appalachian state. The Journal of Educational Research, 90(3), 175-181.
Chapin, J. (2001). It won't happen to me: The role of optimistic bias in African American teens' risky sexual practices. Howard Journal of Communication, 12(1), 49-59.
Damon, W. (1984). Peer education: The untapped potential. Journal of applied developmental psychology, 5(4), 331-343.
Kerpelman, J. L., McElwain, A. D., Pittman, J. F., & Adler-Baeder, F. M. (2016). Engagement in risky sexual behavior: Adolescents’ perceptions of self and the parent–child relationship matter. Youth & Society, 48(1), 101-125.
Sciolla, A., Ziajko, L. A., & Salguero, M. L. (2010). Sexual health competence of international medical graduate psychiatric residents in the United States. Academic Psychiatry, 34(5), 361-368.
Stakic, S., Zielony, R., Bodiroza, A., & Kimzeke, G. (2003). Peer education within a frame of theories and models of behaviour change. Entre Nous: The European Magazine for Sexual and Reproductive Health, 56, 4-6.
Walsh-Buhi, E. R., Marhefka, S. L., Wang, W., Debate, R., Perrin, K., Singleton, A., ... & Ziemba, R. (2016). The impact of the Teen Outreach Program on sexual intentions and behaviors. Journal of Adolescent Health, 59(3), 283-290.
… children being born, and more divorces.
Blackwell, E. (1850). Elizabeth Blackwell on the 1850 Women's Rights Convention.
Retrieved from http://www.wwhp.org/Resources/WomansRights/blackwell_comments.html
Griffith, E. (1984). In Her Own Right: The Life of Elizabeth Cady Stanton. New York:
Oxford University Press.
History. (2019). Women’s suffrage. Retrieved from
Lawson, E. ……
Blackwell, E. (1850). Elizabeth Blackwell on the 1850 Women\\\\\\'s Rights Convention. Retrieved from http://www.wwhp.org/Resources/WomansRights/blackwell_comments.html
Griffith, E. (1984). In Her Own Right: The Life of Elizabeth Cady Stanton. New York: Oxford University Press.
History. (2019). Women’s suffrage. Retrieved from https://www.history.com/topics/womens-history/the-fight-for-womens-suffrage
Lawson, E. N. (2013). Smugglers, Bootleggers, and Scofflaws: Prohibition and New York City. SUNY Press.
Siegel, R. B. (1994). Home as Work: The First Woman\\\\\\'s Rights Claims Concerning
Wives\\\\\\' Household Labor, 1850-1880. The Yale Law Journal, 103(5), 1073-1217.
Van Voris, J. (1996). Carrie Chapman Catt: A Public Life. New York City: Feminist Press at CUNY.
...1984 Budget and Resource Allocation Influence of Political Interest Groups on the Educational Policy Making Process
State support for public education has wavered over time as a consequence of other competing interests. This is more so the case given the competing demands of a wide range of other things including, but not limited to, healthcare (i.e. Medicaid). There are, however, variations from state to state. There is need for educational theorists, education policy practitioners and various other stakeholders in the education framework to better comprehend the various political forces having an impact on state fiscal policy. This text concerns itself with the influence of political interest groups on the educational policy-making process, with regard to budget and resource allocation. The context of this particular discussion will be Florida and Texas.
Interest groups do not have an assigned definition. This is to say that there is no single accepted definition……
Abbott, I., Rathbone, M. & Whitehead, P. (2012). Education Policy. New York, NY: SAGE.
Anderson, J.E. (2003).Public Policy-Making. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Delaney, J. A., & Doyle, W. R. (2007). The role of higher education in state budgets. Journal of Education Finance, 36(4), 343-268.
Grapevine. (2016). Appropriations: State Tax Funds for Operating Expenses of Higher Education, 1983-1984. Retrieved from: https://education.illinoisstate.edu/grapevine/tables/
Larrabee, B. (2016). Education groups put big money into political causes. Retrieved from https://www.gainesville.com/news/20160828/education-groups-put-big-money-into-political-causes
Tandberg, D. A. (2009). Interest groups and governmental institutions: The politics of state funding of public higher education. Educational Policy, 24(5), 104-117.
Vote Smart (2020). Texas Education Special Interest Groups. Retrieved from https://votesmart.org/interest-groups/TX/27#.XrVCzsBRW00
Vote Smart (2020). Florida Education Special Interest Groups. Retrieved from https://votesmart.org/interest-groups/FL/27#.XrVKScBRW01
...1984 The Tactics of the British Intelligence against the IRA
History of the IRA
The Provisional IRA formed in response to a war between the Irish Republican Army and the British state in Northern Ireland from 1969 to 1998. The IRA or what is commonly referred to as the IRA in the West was actually a breakaway from the Army and is better known as PIRA in Ireland. However, because it stood as the fighting force and face of the Irish resistance, it is typically referred to as IRA for short. The IRA was a formal fighting force up until the 1970s when fears of British infiltration caused the IRA to become a secret organization with a cell structure. The IRA published its Green Book, which laid out the rules of being an IRA volunteer. Meanwhile, on the political front was Sinn Fein, which negotiated behind the scenes with the British……
Bamford, B. (2005). The Role and Effectiveness of Intelligence in Northern Ireland. Intelligence and National Security, 20(4), 581-607.
Branch, S., Shallcross, L., Barker, M., Ramsay, S., & Murray, J. P. (2018). Theoretical Frameworks That Have Explained Workplace Bullying: Retracing Contributions Across the Decades. Concepts, Approaches and Methods, 1-44.
Coogan, T. P. (2002). The IRA. New York: Palgrave.
Hilton, J. L., & Von Hippel, W. (1996). Stereotypes. Annual review of psychology, 47(1), 237-271.
IRA Green Book. (1977). Accessed 14 Dec 2015 from https://tensmiths.files.wordpress.com/2012/08/15914572-ira-green-book-volumes-1-and-2.pdf
Lumen. (2019). Theoretical perspectives on deviance. Retrieved from https://courses.lumenlearning.com/sociology/chapter/theoretical-perspectives-on-deviance/
Maloney, E. (2010). Voices from the Grave: Two Men’s War in Ireland. NY: Faber, Faber.
McLeod, S. (2008) Social Identity Theory. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/social-identity-theory.html
… pancreas, intestine, and thymus, can be transplanted successfully (Grinyó 2). The United Network of Organ Sharing (UNOS) established by the US congress in 1984 focuses on the policies and legal frameworks of organ transplantation. At the same time, the Organ Procurement Organizations (OPO) are the non-profit organizations ……
Barker, Clyde F, and James F Markmann. \\\\\\"Historical Overviewed of Transplantation.\\\\\\" Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine 3.4 (2013):
Benefits are a few for Kidney Sellers. (2002, December). USA Today Magazine, p. 10. Academic Search Premier.
County, B. (2015, April 8). 5 benefits of organ donations. Florida Today.
Ehtiush, E. (2011) Ethical controversies in organ transplantation. Understanding the Complexities of Kidney Transplantation. Retrieved April 16, 2020 from https://www.intechopen.com/books/understanding-the-complexities-of-kidney-transplantation/ethical-controversies-in-organ-transplantation
Grinyó, Josep M. \\\\\\"Why Is Organ Transplantation Clinically Important?\\\\\\" Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine 3.6 (2013)
Hughes, N. S. (2003, March). Human Kidneys: The New Cash Crop. New Internationalist. Academic Search Premier.
Hvidt, Niels Christian, et al. \\\\\\"For and against Organ Donation and Transplantation: Intricate Facilitators and Barriers in Organ Donation Perceived by German Nurses and Doctors.\\\\\\" Journal of transplantation 2016 (2016).
Radcliffe, J. (2012). Debating the ethics of organ transplantation. In The Ethics of Transplants. Oxford University Press.
...1984 Geography of Soils and Vegetation in Coastal Environments; focus on Florida Coast
A significant relationship exists between vegetation and soil: soil supports sufficient vegetation growth by providing the latter with moisture, anchorage, and essential nutrients; meanwhile, vegetation serves as a protective covering for soil, safeguarding it against erosion and also facilitating the maintenance of soil nutrition levels using nutrient cycling (i.e., accumulation of litter and its subsequent decay). Thus, soil and vegetation may be said to be reciprocally interrelated. Vegetation is responsible for supporting essential ecosystem functions at multiple spatial scales.
Furthermore, it strongly influences soil quality and attributes such as texture, volume, and chemistry that, in turn, and reciprocally impact several characteristics of vegetation, like floristic composition, productivity, and structure (Eni et al., 1). In this paper, coastal area vegetation and soil geography will be analyzed. But as considerable variation exists between different coastal areas (e.g., the coast……
Araujo, D. S. D., and M. C. A. Pereira. " INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON TROPICAL BIOLOGY AND NATURAL RESOURCES - Sandy coastal vegetation." Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), (2012).
Armentano, Thomas V., et al. "Vegetation pattern and process in tree islands of the southern Everglades and adjacent areas." Tree islands of the Everglades. Springer, Dordrecht, 2002. 225-281.
Bakker, Jan P., et al. "Environmental impacts—coastal ecosystems." North Sea region climate change assessment. Springer, Cham, 2016. 275-314.
Benedet, L., C. W. Finkl, and A. H. F. Klein. "Morphodynamic classification of beaches on the Atlantic coast of Florida: geographical variability of beach types, beach safety, and coastal hazards." Journal of Coastal Research (2006): 360-365.
Bini, C., et al. "Soils and vegetation of coastal and wetland areas in Northern Adriatic (NE Italy)." 7. International Meeting on Soils with Mediterranean Type of Climate, Valenzano (Italy), 23-28 Sep 2001. CIHEAM-IAMB, 2002.
Eni, D. D., A. I. Iwara, and R. A. Offiong. "Analysis of soil-vegetation interrelationships in a south-southern secondary forest of Nigeria." International Journal of Forestry Research 2012 (2012).
Psuty, Norbert P., Philip E. Steinberg, and Dawn J. Wright. "Coastal and marine geography." Geography in America at the Dawn of the 21st Century (2004): 314-25.
Wright, Lynn D., and Andrew D. Short. "Morphodynamic variability of surf zones and beaches: a synthesis." Marine Geology 56.1-4 (1984): 93-118
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