...Violence The Future of Juvenile Justice
1. Do you think the United States will be better or worse in terms of the number of juvenile offenders and the severity of the offenses in the next 20 years? Why?
I think that the United States will be considerably better in regard to the number of juvenile offenders in tandem with the severity of the offenses committed in the next two decades. Since the onset of the 2000s, endeavors by legislators, non-profit organizations in addition to private citizens comparable have pressed for more rehabilitative endeavors to be employed in juvenile justice cases. What is definite, at least, is that the juvenile crime rate has declined substantially from the onset of the 2000s and most of them still continue to decline on an annual basis. Sustained and unrelenting efforts on the part of all persons involved within the juvenile justice system will help in……
Baysinger Law. (2018). Factors Contributing to Juvenile Delinquency. Retrieved from: https://baysingerlaw.com/2018/03/factors-contributing-juvenile-delinquency/
Howell, J. C. (2003). Preventing and reducing juvenile delinquency: A comprehensive framework. New York: Sage.
International Juvenile Justice Obervatory. (2019). United Nations guidelines for the prevention of juvenile delinquency (The Riyadh Guidelines). Retrieved from: http://www.oijj.org/en/preguntas-frecuentes#152481-0
Johns, B. (2018). Juvenile Justice in the United States: Juvenile life without parole. Retrieved from: https://medium.com/@bjohns81/juvenile-justice-the-american-justice-system-vs-other-countries-3dc6860c77ad
MST Services. (2018). Trends in Juvenile Crime. Retrieved from: http://info.mstservices.com/blog/trends-in-juvenile-crime
National Research Council. (2013). Reforming juvenile justice: A developmental approach. National Academies Press.
Smith, H. Problems and Solutions in Juvenile Justice. Resource Center Partnership.
… much back to the community: she helped fund the local YMCA and donated to a nationwide anti-lynching campaign to help stop and prevent violence against her African-American brothers and sisters. That is what makes her a millionaire in my eyes, for I know all too well, hailing … makes her a millionaire in my eyes, for I know all too well, hailing as I do from South Africa, the impact that violence can have on a community. My aim is to use the Coffee Pot as a community center where people of all races can … Pot as a community center where people of all races can come together as one and put an end to the decades of violence and bigotry that have persisted in communities since the Civil Rights Era, when so much seemed within America’s grasp and yet has eluded ……
Benedict-Browne, T. (2019). The Icon of Indiana Avenue. Retrieved from http://nomeancity.com/walker-theater
Evans, D. (2010). Social media marketing: An hour a day. John Wiley & Sons.
Hobbs, J. (2017). 15 of Africa's favorite dishes. Retrieved from https://www.cnn.com/travel/article/africa-food dishes/index.html#targetText=Pap%20en%20vleis%2FShisa%20nyama%2C%20South%20Africa&targetText=Chops%2C%20steak%2C%20chicken%2C%20kebabs,and%20suurpap%20(soured%20pap).
Madam Walker Legacy Center. (2019). Retrieved from https://madamwalkerlegacycenter.com/
National Park Service. (2019). Madame C. J. Walker Building. Retrieved from https://www.nps.gov/nr/travel/indianapolis/walkerbuilding.html
Trout, J. & Rivkin, S. (2006). Differentiate or die. In The marketing Gurus (ed. Murray). NY: Penguin.
… back into the community
8. To promote access to reproductive health services
9. To challenge stigma, negative laws, and discrimination
10. To stop violence against women
Background and Significance
According to the Human Development Index of 2019, Niger is grouped among the poorest countries in the world, … awareness, screening, surgical interventions, and culturally-aware management. By educating the villages and the village people about the negative effects of early marriage and gender-violence, there is hope that there will be fewer new cases and that the stigma surrounding the disease will reduce or be eliminated.
Barroy, Helene; Cortez, Rafael A.; Karamoko, Djibrilla. 2015. Adolescent sexual and reproductive health in Niger (English). Health, nutrition, and population (HNP) knowledge brief. Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/684231467991017488/Adolescent-sexual-and-reproductive-health-in-Niger
… include those with mental conditions, those suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder, those who are victims of abuse, those who are victims of family violence, those who are suffering from substance abuse, and those who have no social support. Healthy People 2020 puts emphasis on the significance of … number of health issues that the homeless have to deal with are made worse by other social health determinants including social disconnection, domestic violence, unemployment, poverty, and psychological trauma (Fajardo-Bullón et al, 2019).
Addressing social determinants of health is the preferred way of dealing with the health ……
Andaya, A. (2016). Understanding the Causes Health Disparities among the Homeless. UC Merced Undergraduate Research Journal, 9(1).
Fajardo-Bullón, F., Esnaola, I., Anderson, I., & Benjaminsen, L. (2019). Homelessness and self-rated health: evidence from a national survey of homeless people in Spain. BMC public health, 19(1), 1081.
Koh, H. K., & O’Connell, J. J. (2016). Improving health care for homeless people. Jama, 316(24), 2586-2587.
Plumb J. D. (2000). Homelessness: reducing health disparities. CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l\\\\\\'Association medicale canadienne, 163(2), 172–173.
… racism and believed in protests as the solution to getting blacks the same rights and freedoms as other Americans. However, he believed that violence or force was an option on the table if the situation called for it. Douglass did not stop fighting for the rights and ……
Douglass, Frederick. \\\\\\\\\\\\"The Civil Rights Case.\\\\\\\\\\\\" speech at Lincoln Hall, Washington, DC 22 (1883): 1950-75.
Douglass, Frederick. \\\\\\\\\\\\"The meaning of July Fourth for the Negro.\\\\\\\\\\\\" Frederick Douglass: Selected speeches and writings (1852): 188-206.
DuBois, Ellen Carol. Feminism and suffrage: The emergence of an independent women\\\\\\\\\\\\'s movement in America, 1848-1869. Cornell University Press, 1978.
Fredrickson, George M. Racism: A short history. Princeton University Press, 2002.
Gooding-Williams, Robert. In the shadow of Du Bois: Afro-modern political thought in America. Harvard University Press, 2009.
Jefferson, Thomas. Notes on the State of Virginia. Penguin, 1999.
Lee, Maurice S., ed. The Cambridge Companion to Frederick Douglass. Cambridge University Press, 2009.
McCarthy, Thomas. Race, empire, and the idea of human development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
… towards others. On the other hand if there are no such deterrents one might more readily harbor these thoughts and give in to violence. Then again, how does taking the life of the defendant help him towards virtue? The answer here is that it might provide him ……
Capote, Truman. In Cold Blood. NY: Vintage, 1994.
Holmes, A. Ethics: Approaching moral decisions. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2007.
Hursthouse, Rosalind. “Virtue Ethics.” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2016. https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-virtue/
Kronenwetter, M. Capital Punishment: A Reference Handbook. CA: ABC-CLIO, 2001.
Robbins, Tim, dir. Dead Man Walking. Gramercy Pictures, 1995. Film.
… of the counterterrorism operation in Afghanistan was based on opposing terrorism, which was defined as a “sustained use, or threat of use, of violence by a small group for political purposes such as inspiring fear, drawing widespread attention to a political grievance and/or provoking a draconian or … appropriately fit the definition of an insurgent group in Afghanistan, a group whose purpose was focused on the “organized use of subversion and violence to seize, nullify, or challenge political control of a region” (FM 3-24, 2014, p. 1-2). Thus, from the outset, the ideological approach of ……
Almukhtar, S. & Nordland, R. (2019). What Did the U.S. Get for $2 Trillion in Afghanistan? Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2019/12/09/world/middleeast/afghanistan-war-cost.html
Barno, D. (2007). The Other War: Counterinsurgency Strategy in Afghanistan 2003– 20. Military Review, 87(5), 32–44.
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Felbab-Brown, V. (2017). Afghanistan’s opium production is through the roof—why Washington shouldn’t overreact. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/blog/order-from-chaos/2017/11/21/afghanistans-opium-production-is-through-the-roof-why-washington-shouldnt-overreact/
FM 3-24. (2014). Retrieved from https://fas.org/irp/doddir/army/fm3-24.pdf
Hitz, F. P. (1999). Obscuring Propriety: The CIA and Drugs. International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence, 12(4), 448-462.
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Kiras, J. D. (2002). Terrorism and Irregular Warfare, in John Baylis, James Wirtz, Eliot Cohen and Colin Gray eds., Strategy in the Contemporary World (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), 208–232.
...Violence Suicide Terrorism: Driven to Death
Who are the terrorists engaging in suicide bombings? What motivates them to act? These are some of the questions Merari (2010) tackles in Driven to Death. They are not entirely new questions, as other researchers have asked them as well—but Merari (2010) does provide new insight into the phenomenon of suicide bombing by conducting field work and independent research to uncover more information on this particular subject. This paper explores some of the findings of Merari (2010) and compares them with what other researchers have had to say, particularly on the subject of what motivates terrorists to act.
While many scholars argue that there is no demographic profile of the suicide bomber, Merari (2010) disagrees and presents his own demographic profile based on his own research. The argument of general scholarship is that anyone can be a suicide bomber, young or old, rich……
Bandura, A. (2018). Toward a psychology of human agency: Pathways and reflections. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 13(2), 130-136.
Chatfield, A. T., Reddick, C. G., & Brajawidagda, U. (2015, May). Tweeting propaganda, radicalization and recruitment: Islamic state supporters multi-sided twitter networks. In Proceedings of the 16th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research (pp. 239-249).
Costello, M., & Hawdon, J. (2018). Who are the online extremists among us? Sociodemographic characteristics, social networking, and online experiences of those who produce online hate materials. Violence and gender, 5(1), 55-60.
DeCook, J. R. (2018). Memes and symbolic violence:# proudboys and the use of memes for propaganda and the construction of collective identity. Learning, Media and Technology, 43(4), 485-504.
Koch, A. (2018). Trends in Anti-Fascist and Anarchist Recruitment and Mobilization. Journal for Deradicalization, (14), 1-51.
Merari, A. (2010). Driven to death. Oxford University Press.
...Violence Social Policy Analysis Report
Definition of Social Problem
In recent decades, sex trafficking has become a substantial social problem affecting the whole world and continues to necessitate worldwide collaboration to combat it (Brooks and Heaslip, 2019) entirely. Human trafficking is a violation of the fundamental human rights of men, women, and children all over the world. Based on research conducted by the United Nations, statistics indicated that persons across 106 different nations across the globe had experienced trafficking either for labor or sex, or both. Twenty-eight percent of this statistic comprised of children, with the number of girls surpassing that of boys by 40 percent (Greenbaum, 2017). The United Nations defines sexual traffic to encompass the act of recruiting, transferring, harboring, or receiving of individuals, by way of either threat or through use of force as well as other kinds of intimidation, fraud, trickery, abuse of power or authority, capitalizing……
Alliance to End Slavery and Trafficking. (2017). Summary of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) and Reauthorizations FY 2017. Retrieved from: https://endslaveryandtrafficking.org/summary-trafficking-victims-protection-act-tvpa-reauthorizations-fy-2017-2/
Benoit, C., Smith, M., Jansson, M., Healey, P., & Magnuson, D. (2019). “The prostitution problem”: Claims, evidence, and policy outcomes. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 48(7), 1905-1923.
Brooks, A., & Heaslip, V. (2019). Sex trafficking and sex tourism in a globalized world. Tourism Review of AIEST - International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism, 74(5), 1104-1115. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/TR-02-2017-001
Bruckert, C., & Parent, C. (2002). Trafficking in human beings and organized crime: A literature review (pp. 1-35).
Clawson, H. J., Dutch, N., Solomon, A., & Grace, L. G. (2009). Human trafficking into and within the United States: A review of the literature. Washington, DC: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, US Department of Human and Health Services. Retrieved December 25, 2009.
Greenbaum, V. J. (2017). Child sex trafficking in the United States: Challenges for the healthcare provider. PLoS medicine, 14(11).
International Labour Organization. (2017). Global Estimates of Modern Slavery. Retrieved from: https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---dcomm/documents/publication/wcms_575479.pdf
Kelly, C. (July 30, 2019). 13 sex trafficking statistics that explain the enormity of the global sex trade. USA Today. Retrieved from: https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/investigations/2019/07/29/12-trafficking-statistics-enormity-global-sex-trade/1755192001/
Gangs in America have formed the subject of a large number of research works, thereby becoming a growth sector (Sanchez-Jankowski, 2003). The definition of the term ‘gangs’ is: an ongoing informal or formal group, party, or alliance of at least three individuals whose primary activities include perpetrating at least one of the crimes listed below: 1) attacking using a lethal weapon, 2) murder, 3) burglary, 4) selling or holding in possession for production, selling, offering for sale, transporting, or offering to produce controlled substances, 5) arson, 6) shooting at any occupied automobile or inhabited house, 7) intimidating victims and witnesses, and 8) carrying out a grand robbery of a vehicle, vessel, or trailer, in addition to sharing a common sign, symbol, or name, whose members have separately or, as a group, previously or currently participated in some pattern of hang crime (California Department of Justice, 1993).
California Department of Justice. (1993). Gangs 2000: A call to action. Sacramento, California: Department of Justice.
Department of Public Security. (2007). Definition and classification of gangs: Executive summary. Washington, DC: Organization of American States.
Sanchez-Jankowski, M. (2003). Gangs and social change. Theoretical Criminology, 7(2), 191-216. DOI: 10.1177/1362480603007002413.
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