… admitting to have already had sex, and only 60% of those students claiming they used a condom, sexual education can be considered a public health imperative (National Conference of State Legislatures, 2019). Unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases are the most important health-related reasons to teach sexual … (National Conference of State Legislatures, 2019). Unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases are the most important health-related reasons to teach sexual education in public schools. Research has shown that “when sex education is comprehensive, students feel more informed, make safer choices and have healthier outcomes — resulting in … and gender. Given that sexuality is an inherent part of human life, there is really no reason not to teach sexual education in public schools. All ethical perspectives, from deontological to utilitarian, would support comprehensive sexual education in American public schools.
Why Is Sexual Education Controversial?
If sexual education is important for……
Abbott, K., Ellis, S. J., & Abbott, R. (2016). “We”ve got a lack of family values’: an examination of how teachers formulate and justify their approach to teaching sex and relationships education. Sex Education, 16(6), 678–691. doi:10.1080/14681811.2016.1169398
“America’s Sex Education: How We Are Failing Our Students,” (2017). USC Department of Nursing. Retrieved from https://nursing.usc.edu/blog/americas-sex-education/
Bauman, S.D. (2018). When sex ed pretends to be secular. Senior Independent Study Theses. Paper 8059. Retrieved from https://openworks.wooster.edu/independentstudy/8059
Kirby, D. B. (2008). The impact of abstinence and comprehensive sex and STD/HIV education programs on adolescent sexual behavior. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 5(3), 18-27
Lepore, J. (2015). The facts of life. 94 Foreign Aff. 144 (2015).
National Conference of State Legislatures (2019). State policies on sex education in schools. Retrieved from http://www.ncsl.org/research/health/state-policies-on-sex-education-in-schools.aspx
Pardini, P. (2019). The history of sexuality education. Rethinking Schools. Retrieved from http://rethinkingschools.aidcvt.com/sex/sexhisto.shtml
Planned Parenthood (2019). What is sex education? Retrieved from https://www.plannedparenthood.org/learn/for-educators/what-sex-education
Chicago public School (CPS) system is the most understaffed in Illinois, where throughout the state the average student to staff ratio is 11 to one. … foremost the biggest issue that CPS faces. It is caused by the issue of underfunding and a pension plan disaster plaguing the city’s public sector jobs. Teachers do not want to take up jobs not knowing what the future holds and many are already striking to show … to reduce their expectations. Teaching is a noble profession and it should pay well to reflect the importance of the job. But if schools cannot offer the pay that should be expected and cannot provide students with the learning experience they should have, then they should close. ……
Blatchford, P., & Russell, A. (2019). Class size, grouping practices and classroom management. International Journal of Educational Research, 96, 154-163.
Guerrero, M. (2019). Understaffed and overcrowded: Chicago teachers on strike. Retrieved from https://depauliaonline.com/43619/news/understaffed-and-overcrowded-chicago-teachers-on-strike/
Laraviere, T. (2019). Is the teachers' union demanding enough? Retrieved from https://www.chicagobusiness.com/opinion/teachers-union-demanding-enough
Leone, H. (2019). Chicago Public Schools’ enrollment drops another 6,000 students, extending long downward trend. Retrieved from https://www.chicagotribune.com/news/breaking/ct-cps-chicago-public-schools-enrollment-decline-20191108-u7qkibaptnb7ljyob3frclgldy-story.html
Sepeda-Miller. (2018). Is CPS the most understaffed district in Illinois? Retrieved from https://www.politifact.com/illinois/statements/2018/jun/21/troy-laraviere/cps-most-understaffed-district-illinois/
Introduction: public Safety
The aim of the public safety sector is the provision of products and services geared at safeguarding individuals and their property. Over 286,000 individuals are employed in this … this sector, which can be segregated into the following two key segments: commercial and governmental organizations. Federal, regional, state, and local level governmental public safety organizations agencies have outnumbered commercial ones all through the course of the past decade. Most individuals working in this sector are hired … Most individuals working in this sector are hired by governmental organizations, including the fire department, police department, and sheriff's department. Some federal level public safety institutions include the CIA, FBI, Department of Homeland Security, and Border Patrol (Vault, 2020).
The most predominant public safety jobs are connected with the police: police officers, detectives/ investigators, or correctional officers. EMT personnel, highway patrol officials, and firefighters make up … are……
Achim, A. C. (2014). Risk management issues in policing: from safety risks faced by law enforcement agents to occupational health. Procedia Economics and Finance, 15, 1671-1676.
Bornstein, A. (2005). Antiterrorist policing in New York City after 9/11: Comparing perspectives on a complex process. Human Organization, 64(1), 52-61. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/44127004?seq=1
Buyantseva, L. V., Tulchinsky, M., Kapalka, G. M., Chinchilli, V. M., Qian, Z., Gillio, R., et al. (2007). Evolution of lower respiratory symptoms in New York police officers after 9/11: A prospective longitudinal study. J Occup Environ Med, 49, 310–17.
Homeland Security. (2005). Grand reform: The faster and smarter funding for first responders. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Lippmann, M., Cohen, M. D., & Chen, L-C. (2015). Health effects of World Trade Center (WTC) Dust: An unprecedented disaster with inadequate risk management. Crit Rev Toxicol, 45(6), 492-530. DOI: 10.3109/10408444.2015.1044601
NYPD. (2020). About NYPD. Retrieved from https://www1.nyc.gov/site/nypd/about/about-nypd/about-nypd-landing.page
OHS. (2008). Occupational Health and Safety Code of Practice. Australian Government.
Vault. (2020). Overview. Retrieved from https://www.vault.com/industries-professions/industries/public-safety
… facto—and that can easily be achieved by obliging all students to wear a school uniform. One is used to seeing students of private schools wear uniforms, but in public schools this idea is typically shunned. There are good arguments to be made, however, for uniforms to be mandated by public schools. First off, research has shown that school uniforms actually promote good conduct among students and more formal adherence to the rules and regulations … for school uniforms is, this paper will argue that school uniforms are simply a common sense way to help reduce peer pressure in public schools and get young students focused on believing in themselves, in each other, and in their school. Thus, this paper will show that school … (1996) on the Long Beach Unified School District, which in 1994 made uniforms mandatory for all K-8 students. Long Beach was the first public school……
Bandura, A. (2018). Toward a psychology of human agency: Pathways and reflections. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 13(2), 130-136.
Bodine, A. (2003). School uniforms, academic achievement, and uses of research. The Journal of Educational Research, 97(2), 67-71.
Caruso, P. (1996). Individuality vs. conformity: The issue behind school uniforms. NASSP Bulletin, 80(581), 83-88.
Fox, K. R., & Lindwall, M. (2014). Self-esteem and self-perceptions in sport and exercise. In Routledge Companion to Sport and Exercise Psychology (pp. 58-72). Routledge.
Murray, R. K. (1997). The impact of school uniforms on school climate. NASSP Bulletin, 81(593), 106-112.
NAESP. (2013). National Survey of School Leaders Reveals 2013 School Uniform Trends. Retrieved from https://www.naesp.org/national-survey-school-leaders-reveals-2013-school-uniform-trends
School connectedness: Strategies for increasing protective factors among youth. (2010). Reclaiming Children and Youth, 19(3), 20-24.
Stanley, M. S. (1996). School uniforms and safety. Education and Urban Society, 28(4), 424-435.
How public Administrative Discretion Works
The main difference between public and private administration is that in the former the administration both administers to the public and is accountable to the public; in the latter, the administration is accountable only to stakeholders, which may or may not include members of the community/public. Other differences include the fact that in private administration, the idea is that the administration is overseeing some business organization that focuses on … the idea is that the administration is overseeing some business organization that focuses on a goal related to its mission, its business model. public administration, on the other hand, refers to a political process wherein official administrators are elected or appointed to do a job for the … other hand, refers to a political process wherein official administrators are elected or appointed to do a job for the good of the public.……
Cann, S. (2007). The Administrative State, the Exercise of Discretion, and the Constitution. Public Administration Review, 67(4), 780–782.
EPA. (2015). Administrative discretion. Retrieved from https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-11/documents/administrative_discretion_nonotesclean.pdf
Reyes, P., & Pounder, D. G. (1993). Organizational orientation in public and private elementary schools. The Journal of Educational Research, 87(2), 86-93.
Reyes, D. R. (1998). Public sector reengineering: Practice, problems and prospects.
Rinaldi, M., Montanari, R., & Bottani, E. (2015). Improving the efficiency of public
administrations through business process reengineering and simulation: A case study. Business Process Management Journal, 21(2), 419-462.
Rubenstein, D. S. (2015). Administrative Federalism as Separation of Powers. Wash. & Lee L. Rev., 72, 171.
Savoie, D. J. (2006). What is wrong with the new public management?. In Comparative Public Administration (pp. 593-602). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
… create emotionally powerful campaigns designed to change the ways consumers—or voters—think, act, and feel. The goal of advertising is ultimately behavioral change. With public service announcements like those for gun control, advertisers use the same principles used to market goods and services. As with commercial product advertising, … service announcements like those for gun control, advertisers use the same principles used to market goods and services. As with commercial product advertising, public service announcements are created to invoke a cognitive and emotional response, to change social norms, and to induce meaningful and lasting behavioral change. … appeal more to the logic and ethical tenets of the American Constitution, and less to the partisan politics typically invoked in gun control public relations campaigns. Similarly, most gun control ads rely too heavily on pathos, without using logic, language, and ethical tenets strongly enough to stimulate ……
“Gun Control PSAs By Moms Demand Action Are Striking And Powerful.” HuffPost. April 15, 2013. https://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/04/15/gun-control-psas-moms-demand-action-for-gun-sense-in-america_n_3082504.html
School uniform policies have been enforced in many schools over the past few decades. These policies are enforced based on school administrators beliefs that students are ready to learn when they arrive … issues and class attendance/participation rather than how a student dresses. While school uniform policies have become relatively controversial in the recent past, many schools have established dress codes that guide acceptable and unacceptable dress attires in the learning environment. This study examines the benefits of school uniforms … help to ensure students are ready to learn when they arrive at the school and are dressed for success. Given these believes many schools have already established policies to guide approved and disapproved dress codes.
However, the idea that school uniforms have positive impacts on the learning … idea that school uniforms have positive impacts on the learning process and student outcomes/achievements has generated numerous concerns among policymakers, parents……
Adams, B.J. (2007, May 2). The Effectiveness of School Uniforms on Students’ Academic Achievement and Overall Classroom Behavior. Retrieved from Rowan University website: https://rdw.rowan.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1769&context=etd
Creswell, J.W. (2014). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications Inc.
DeMitchell, T.A. (2015, December 15). Does Wearing a School Uniform Improve Student Behavior? Retrieved October 19, 2019, from http://theconversation.com/does-wearing-a-school-uniform-improve-student-behavior-51553
Ordway, D. (2018, April 20). School Uniforms: Do They Really Improve Student Achievement, Behavior? Retrieved October 19, 2019, from https://journalistsresource.org/studies/society/education/school-uniforms-research-achievement/
Sanchez, J. (2013, April 23). College of Education Researchers Conduct Study on Impacts of School Uniform. Retrieved from University of Nevada, Reno website: https://www.unr.edu/nevada-today/news/2013/school-uniform-study
… difficult for racially and economically diverse students to have affordability and access to the highly-priced educational institutes. Recently, the costs for attending a public college have surged up to $21,370 as compared to $8,250 in 1980, which means it is an approximately 30 percent rise in the … college have surged up to $21,370 as compared to $8,250 in 1980, which means it is an approximately 30 percent rise in the public education costs (Hess “The Cost of College Increased”).
The three causes for the rise in the cost of public education in the US are financial aids from the government and educational institutes, sticker price and price discrimination, and cost increment due to … spent less than 13 percent on students of the educational institutions (see attached figure). After the depression, the government had to fund the public institutions and the students for better educational provisions. For that,……
Amour, Madeline. “Report: living expenses, not tuition, are the problem.” Inside Higher Ed, 13 May 2020, https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2020/05/13/living-expenses-are-larger- barrier-students-tuition-report-finds. Accessed 30 Jul. 2020.
Cude, Katherine. The Rising Cost Of Tuition At Four Year Public Universities: A Comparison Of The Explanations Offered By The Academic Literature And University Decision Makers. 2016. University of Vermont, Undergraduate theses. Scholar Works, https://scholarworks.uvm.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1027&context=castheses
Davidson, Adam. “Is College Tuition Really Too High?” The New York Times Magazine, 8 Sep. 2015, https://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/13/magazine/is-college-tuition-too-high.html . Accessed 30 Jul. 2020.
Desrochers, Donna, and Kirshstein, Rita. Labor Intensive or Labor Expensive? 2014. American Institutes for Research, Delta Cost Project. Lumina Foundation, https://www.luminafoundation.org/files/resources/deltacostair-labor-expensive-higher- education-staffing-brief-feb2014.pdf
Dickler, Jessica. “Why College Tuition Keeps Rising.” CNBC, 24 Oct. 2019, https://www.cnbc.com/2019/10/24/why-college-tuition-keeps-rising.html, Accessed 30 Jul. 2020.
Hemelt, Steven, and Marcotte, Dave. Rising Tuition And Enrollment In Public Higher Education. 2008. IZA, Discussion Paper. IZA, http://ftp.iza.org/dp3827.pdf
Hemelt, Steven, and Marcotte, Dave. “The Impact of Tuition Increases on Enrollment at Public Colleges and Universities.” Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, vol. 33, no. 4, Dec. 2011, pp. 435-457.
Hess, Abigail. “The Cost of College Increased by More Than 25% In the Last 10 Years- Here’s Why.” CNBC, 13 Dec. 2019, https://www.cnbc.com/2019/12/13/cost-of-college- increased-by-more-than-25percent-in-the-last-10-years.html. Accessed 30 Jul. 2020.
Trash or Treasure - Case Study
Ethics is an important issue in the field of public administration since it provides accountability between the administration and the public. To enhance accountability, public administrators, public service leaders and other stakeholders in this field are required to adhere to a code of ethics. The code of ethics gives these … to a code of ethics. The code of ethics gives these professionals guidelines for integrity in their work and helps to ensure the public receives its needs in a fair manner (Academic Partnerships, 2016). However, not every professional in the field adheres to the code of ethics … Commissioner Richard Mitchell, his wife, Director of Transportation, Nick Kellogg, Deputy Director of Transportation, the City Council, Department of Transportation staff, and the public. These key actions in the scenario have different roles that can further be described through the following table.
Academic Partnerships. (2016, May 24). The Importance of Ethics in Public Administration. Retrieved from the University of Texas Arlington website: https://academicpartnerships.uta.edu/articles/public-administration/the-importance-of-ethics-in-public-administration.aspx#:~:text=Ethics%20provide%20accountability%20between%20the,the%20trust%20of%20the%20community .
Kure, G.M. (2018, May). Public Servants’ Attitude Towards Professional Ethics and its Implications for Service Delivery in Selected Bureaus of the Oromia Regional State. Retrieved June 18, 2020, from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/e33a/1f1f01fc900f993f679643740b8d8c104517.pdf
UNC School of Government. (2019, November 20). The Importance of Ethics in Public Administration. Retrieved from The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill website: https://onlinempa.unc.edu/blog/the-importance-of-ethics-in-public-administration/#:~:text=American%20Society%20for%20Public%20Administration,integrity%2C%20promote%20ethical%20organizations%2C%20and
Whitton, H. (2001, February). Implementing Effective Ethics Standards in Government and the Civil Service. Retrieved June 18, 2020, from https://www.oecd.org/mena/governance/35521740.pdf
Five future trends in public Administration are 1) global interconnectedness and self-sufficiency; 2) changes to public health policy; 3) incorporation of advanced technology into administration; 4) more grassroots advocacy; and 5) emphasis on sustainability (Florida Tech, 2019). The first … of advanced technology into administration; 4) more grassroots advocacy; and 5) emphasis on sustainability (Florida Tech, 2019). The first trend—the global interconnectedness of public administrations and a focus at the same time on self-sufficiency—may seem like two diametrically opposed trends going in opposite directions, but the reality … self-sufficiency—may seem like two diametrically opposed trends going in opposite directions, but the reality is that global interconnectedness and self-sufficiency are compatible and public administrators in the future will need to realize how. First off, globalization is a fact of life in the modern world. The China-U.S. … planet: the reason is that we live in a global economy, and every……
Abiad, A. & Khatiwada, S. (2019). 5 ways technology is improving governance, public service delivery in developing Asia. Retrieved from https://blogs.adb.org/blog/5-ways-technology-improving-governance-public-service-delivery-developing-asia
Florida Tech. (2019). Five global trends in public administration. Retrieved from https://www.fit.edu/your-college-decision/trends-in-public-administration/
McDonald, B. (2017). Measuring the fiscal health of municipalities. Retrieved from https://www.lincolninst.edu/sites/default/files/pubfiles/mcdonald_wp17bm1.pdf
VCU. (2019). Public personnel administration. Retrieved from https://commed.vcu.edu/IntroPH/Management/management/personnel.html
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