The functions of the historical state correctional system have changed since the founding of the nation more than 200 years ago. The Jacksonian era, the era of Reconstruction and the progressive era on up to the reform of the 1970s all effected different changes to the function—i.e., the goals and activities—of the correctional system. Pennsylvania’s … approach to corrections. This paper will look at the functions of the state correctional system, analyze criminal justice issues, examine the impacts of era and social justice issues for one correctional institution and one private institution, identify cultural sensitivity and diversity awareness issues, discuss two methods of … skills programs such as masonry like what the Florida state corrections system offers to inmates (Florida Department of Corrections, 2020). By providing the era inmate opportunities to improve him or herself by using the time available in the prison to the best possible advantage, the……
Clemmer, D. (1940). The prison community. New Braunfels, TX: Christopher Publishing House.
Compton, M. T., Anderson, S., Broussard, B., Ellis, S., Halpern, B., Pauselli, L., . . .Johnson, M. (2017). A potential new form of jail diversion and reconnection to mental health services: II. Demonstration of feasibility. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 35(5–6), 492–500. doi:10.1002/bsl.2319
Corrections Arizona Department. (2020). Retrieved from https://corrections.az.gov/location/110/kingman
Dryburgh, M. (2009). Policy implications of whistle-blowing: The case of Corcoran State Prison. Public Integrity, 11(2): 155-170.
Fantel, H. (1974). William Penn: Apostle of Dissent. NY: William Morrow & Co. Florida Department of Corrections. (2020). Retrieved from
Hensley, J. & Rough, G. (2011). Kingman prison still under scrutiny. Retrieved from http://archive.azcentral.com/news/articles/2011/01/30/20110130kingman-prison-still-under-scrutiny0130.html
HIV among Incarcerated Populations. (2015). CDC. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/group/correctional.html
Overview of Africa’s Post-Conflict History
Historical Formal Institutions
Colonial legacies persist in Africa in spite of a post-colonial era (Austin, 2010). These legacies have continued in post-conflict Africa’s history. In Africa, there has been no real unifying factor bringing individuals together, primarily … laws of society, and the symbolic boundaries have served to create the structural meanings behind formal institutions; the expressive dimension, communicative properties and era of these elements have made up the dramaturgic, and the actors and organizations themselves have manifested the institutional. An example of this can … and institutionally, Africa has undoubtedly been impacted by the West over the past few centuries. It has not been untouched by the modern era, and in nations like South Africa one can see just how much the West has influenced African society (Bratton & Van de Walle, … must have a sense of the people (Afro-centric Alliance, 2001). There……
Afro-centric Alliance, A. (2001). Indigenisingorganizational change: Localisation in Tanzania and Malawi. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 16(1), 59-78.
Asiseh, F., Owusu, A., & Quaicoe, O. (2017). An analysis of family dynamics on high school adolescent risky behaviors in Ghana. Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse, 26(5), 425-431.
Austin, G. (2010). African economic development and colonial legacies (Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 11-32). Institut de hautes études internationales et du développement.
Brager, G., Specht, H., Torczyner, J. L., &Torczyner, J. (1987). Community organizing. Columbia University Press.
Bratton, M., & Van de Walle, N. (1997). Democratic experiments in Africa: Regime transitions in comparative perspective. Cambridge university press.
Burnham, G. M., Pariyo, G., Galiwango, E., & Wabwire-Mangen, F. (2004). Discontinuation of cost sharing in Uganda. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 82, 187-195.
Dillard, C., Duncan, K. L., & Johnson, L. (2017). Black History Full Circle: Lessons from a Ghana Study Abroad in Education Program. Social Education, 81(1), 50-53.
Ehui, S. (2020). Protecting food security in Africa. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/blog/africa-in-focus/2020/05/14/protecting-food-security-in-africa-during-covid-19/
… the poorest indulge themselves at a more leisurely pace (Economist, 2014).
Moreover, because of cultural shifts, working hours have declined in the modern era for the working classes. The 40 hour workweek is now taken for granted, but it was never the norm prior to the 20th ……
Codina, N., & Pestana, J. V. (2019). Time Matters Differently in Leisure Experience for Men and Women: Leisure Dedication and Time Perspective. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(14), 2513.
The Economist. (2014). Why The Rich Now Have Less Leisure Time Than The Poor. Retrieved from https://www.businessinsider.com/why-the-rich-now-have-less-leisure-time-than-the-poor-2014-4
Goldman, M., & Rao, J. M. (2011, March). Allocative and dynamic efficiency in Nba
decision making. In In Proceedings of the MIT Sloan Sports Analytics Conference (pp. 4-5). Hofstede, G. (1998). Attitudes, values and organizational culture: Disentangling the concepts. Organization studies, 19(3), 477-493.
Hogan, D. (2017). Education and class formation:: the peculiarities of the Americans. In Cultural and economic reproduction in education (pp. 32-78). Routledge.
… conducted using computers or the Internet. As today’s digital natives have the most experience with computers, cybercriminals tend to be of the Millennial era—i.e., born after 1980. They are young, digitally sophisticated, and able to era with a degree of professionalism and discipline that allows them to hide their crimes beneath legitimate-looking facades. Spearphishing is one example of a … the Internet of Things and more. They
How Cybercrime Has Evolved over Time
Computers and the rise of the Internet ushered in the era of cybercrime. IBM’s first computer arrived in the 1950s, but it was an enormous machine—and cybercrime did not really become a possibility until … possibility until the personal computer began to hit the market in the 1970s (Computer Hope, 2019). As businesses and organizations began to more era online, individuals began to see an opportunity to exploit weak supports to gain access over company data,……
Computer Hope. (2019). When was the first computer invented? Retrieved from https://www.computerhope.com/issues/ch000984.htm
Crane, C. (2019). 33 alarming cybercrime statistics you should know in 2019. Retrieved from https://www.thesslstore.com/blog/33-alarming-cybercrime-statistics-you-should-know/
Schjølberg, Stein. (2017). The History of Cybercrime (1976-2016). Books on Demand.
Statista. (2020). Global digital population. Retrieved from https://www.statista.com/statistics/617136/digital-population-worldwide/
Taylor, R. W., Fritsch, E. J., Liederbach, J., Saylor, M. R., & Tafoya, W. L. (2019). Cyber crime and cyber terrorism. NY, NY: Pearson.
The FBI, era, and Weapons of Mass Destruction
The United States government significantly increased activities in programs involved in the protection of the nation and the … manmade or natural. It was the second such directive the Administration had issued. The Quadrennial Defense Review in 2010 emphasized on how WMD’s era was a threat to global security. In April of the same year, the Administration unclassified the Nuclear Posture Review for the first time … of deployable US and Russian weapons. Representatives drawn from all over the world met in May with a goal of renewing the Nuclear era Treaty. The goal of the treaty is a progressive reduction and eventual elimination of the number of states with nuclear weapons (Mauroni 2010, 58).
The race for era started during the Cold War. During the era, conflict theory was relatively rational and enemies were well-defined. After 9/11, concerns about nuclear weapons……
Busch, Nathan, and Joyner, Daniel (ed). 2009. “Introduction: Nonproliferation at a Crossroads.” In Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction: The Future of Nonproliferation Policy. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press.
Reiss, Mitchell. 2009. “Foreword.” In Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction: The Future of Nonproliferation Policy. Edited by Nathan Busch, and Daniel Joyner. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press.
Cameron, Gavin, Pate, Jason & Vogel, Kathleen. (2001). “Planting Fear: How Real is the Threat of Agricultural Terrorism?” Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, 57(5), 38-44.
Jennings, Elain. 2013. U. S. proliferation policy and the campaign against transnational terror: Linking the U.S. non-proliferation regime to homeland security efforts. Master’s Thesis. Naval Postgraduate School.
Levi, Michael. 2009. “On Nuclear Terrorism.” Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
Mauroni, Albert. J. 2010. “A Counter-WMD Strategy for the Future.” Parameters, 58-73.
Ogilvie-White, Tanya. 2008. “Facilitating Implementation of Resolution 1540 in South- East Asia, and the South Pacific.” In Implementing Resolution 1540: The Role of Regional Organizations. Edited by Lawrence Scheinman. New York: United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research.
Pilat Joseph F. 2009. “Dealing with Proliferation and Terrorism.” In Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction: The Future of International Nonproliferation Policy, edited by Nathan E. Busch and Daniel H. Joyner. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press.
… established culturally that a woman’s place was in the domestic sphere. That notion would not really be challenged until WWII and the post-war era, when the next wave of the Women’s Movement was getting started by Betty Friedan and her book The Feminine Mystique, which advocated for … waits all day for her husband to come home at night to make her feel alive” (Friedan, 1963, p. 29). That was the era feeling of Feminists in the 1960s when Friedan was writing. Others like Gloria Steinem followed with Ms. Magazine, promoting new changes in society, … part, as it set the stage for transformation in society and put an end to slavery, which was a major focus of many progressive women at the time. That victory gave them confidence to keep going and to keep striving for new ground.
Still, there were many … of Feminists like Friedan, Steinem……
Blackwell, E. (1850). Elizabeth Blackwell on the 1850 Women\\\\\\'s Rights Convention. Retrieved from http://www.wwhp.org/Resources/WomansRights/blackwell_comments.html
Griffith, E. (1984). In Her Own Right: The Life of Elizabeth Cady Stanton. New York: Oxford University Press.
History. (2019). Women’s suffrage. Retrieved from https://www.history.com/topics/womens-history/the-fight-for-womens-suffrage
Lawson, E. N. (2013). Smugglers, Bootleggers, and Scofflaws: Prohibition and New York City. SUNY Press.
Siegel, R. B. (1994). Home as Work: The First Woman\\\\\\'s Rights Claims Concerning
Wives\\\\\\' Household Labor, 1850-1880. The Yale Law Journal, 103(5), 1073-1217.
Van Voris, J. (1996). Carrie Chapman Catt: A Public Life. New York City: Feminist Press at CUNY.
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