International Relations Essays (Examples)

Study Document

Cyber Espionage

Pages: 16 (4895 words) Sources: 24 Document Type:Case Study Document #:27491269

… unacceptable. This study seeks to answer the question, “How is cyber espionage an acceptable state behavior for intelligence gathering though it potentially damages relations between nation-states?” The qualitative case study examined existing studies on this issue and employed thematic analysis to analyze the data. The study found … insights on this topic, future studies should examine the issue based on empirical or primary data.
Keywords: cyber espionage, acceptability, state behavior, cyberattacks, relations, intelligence gathering, national security, cyber warfare, cyber capabilities.
Introduction
Cyberspace has become an important element in the operations of any given country since … secrets with the permission of the owner/possessor of the information.[footnoteRef:2] As a form of cyberattack, cyber espionage is one of the most complex international problems in today’s world despite being seen as an acceptable state behavior. [1: Magnus Hjortdal, “China’s Use of Cyber Warfare: Espionage Meets Strategic … and Combating Techniques”, Indian Computer……

References

Bibliography

Ablon, L. “Data Thieves: The Motivations of Cyber Threat Actors and Their Use and Monetization of Stolen Data.” RAND Corporation, March 2018.  https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/testimonies/CT400/CT490/RAND_CT490.pdf 

Agarwal A. & CERT-IN. “Cyber Espionage, Infiltration and Combating Techniques.” Indian Computer Emergency Response Team, 2013.  https://www.cert-in.org.in/Downloader?pageid=5&type=2&fileName=CIPS-2013-0128.pdf " target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">

Study Document

Iron Contra The Covert Action Operation In Iran

Pages: 9 (2708 words) Sources: 8 Document Type:Essay Document #:25726659

… cover the truth of what transpired in the deposing of Prime Minister Mossadeq in 1953(Levin, 2018).
Recommendations
The U.S. and Britain blatantly ignored international law and pursued a hidden change of regime, and set the stage for a portent adversary in the Middle East. However, the originally ……

References

References

Contini, C. (2013). A Realistic View on Iran: International relations and Global Politics. GRIN Verlag.

De Seve, M. (2020). Operation Ajax: The Story of the CIA Coup that Remade the Middle East. Verso Books.

Fowler, R. (2018). More Than a Doctrine: The Eisenhower Era in the Middle East. U of Nebraska Press.

Lee, C. T. (2013). A Cold War Narrative: The Covert Coup of Mohammad Mossadeq, Role of the U.S. Press and Its Haunting Legacies. Senior Theses, Trinity College, Hartford, CT.  http://digitalrepository.trincoll.edu/theses/300 

Levin, Y. A. (2018). Operation Ajax in the CIA analytics: colonial knowledge in postcolonial age. Samara Journal of Science, 7(2), 200-203.

Luce, D. D. (2017, September 20). The specter of operation AJAX. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2003/aug/20/foreignpolicy.iran

Merica, D., & Hanna, J. (2013). In declassified document, CIA acknowledges role in\\\\\\'53 Iran Coup. CNN News. Retrieved June 15, 2020.

Roosevelt, K. (1979). Countercoup, the Struggle for the Control of Iran. McGraw-Hill Companies.

Study Document

Strategy For National Defense

Pages: 7 (2014 words) Sources: 7 Document Type:Essay Document #:59270793

… that acknowledge the nature and extent of threats, intensity of rivalry, and potential opportunities across all regions. Such strategies become the premise of international relations and U.S. foreign policy. [1: The White House, “National Security Strategy of the United States of America”, The White House, December 2017, https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/NSS-Final-12-18-2017-0905.pdf]
… establishes political, economic, and military and security priority actions to help safeguard her national interests in the Indo-Asia-Pacific region. This process entails developing international relations approaches and foreign policies that seek to protect the interests of the United States in this region. China and Russia are principal priorities … infrastructure, deployed anti-ship missile systems, enhanced control and command abilities, and modernized anti-air abilities in the region. This has generated tensions in the relations between Russia and some countries in the region such as Japan while undermining U.S. national interests in the region. [4: Philip S. Davidson, … prosperity. In line……

References

Bibliography

Davidson, P.S. “Statement of Admiral Philip S. Davidson, U.S. Navy Commander, U.S. Indo-Pacific Command Before the House Armed Services Committee on U.S. Indo-Pacific Command Posture.” United States Senate, March 27, 2019,  https://www.armed-services.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/Davidson_02-12-19.pdf 

Department of Defense. “Summary of the 2018 National Defense Strategy of the United States of America.” National Defense Strategy, 2018,  https://dod.defense.gov/Portals/1/Documents/pubs/2018-National-Defense-Strategy-Summary.pdf 

Muller, K. “The Essence of Coercive Air Power: A Primer for Military Strategies.” Air University,  https://www.airuniversity.af.edu/Portals/10/ASPJ/journals/Chronicles/mueller.pdf 

Pape, R.A. Bombing to Win: Air Power and Coercion in War, 1st ed. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1996.

Tammen, R.L., Kugler, J. & Lemke, D. “Power Transition Theory.” International Relations, June 27, 2017, DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780199743292-0038

The White House. “National Security Strategy of the United States of America.” The White House, December 2017, https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/NSS-Final-12-18-2017-0905.pdf

Withers, P. “Integrating Cyber with Air Power in the Second Century of the Royal Air Force.” Medium, March 4, 2019,  https://medium.com/raf-caps/integrating-cyber-with-air-power-in-the-second-century-of-the-royal-air-force-bca74b8d42ed 

 

Study Document

Cyber Espionage

Pages: 6 (1662 words) Sources: 8 Document Type:Research Paper Document #:11946972

… study research design based on the Just War Theory will be utilized to conduct this research. Data will be collected from professionals in international relations and cyber security as well as existing publications on recent cyber espionage activities by China and Russia.
Keywords: cyber espionage, acceptability, proposition, state … security as well as existing publications on recent cyber espionage activities by China and Russia.
Keywords: cyber espionage, acceptability, proposition, state behavior, cyberattack, relations, intelligence gathering, national security.
Introduction
Cyberspace has become an important element is the operations of any given country because of today’s information age. … use of cyberspace in modern warfare has also been characterized by the emergence of cyber espionage, which is one of the most complex international problems in today’s world. Cyber espionage refers to the practice of obtaining secrets with the permission of the owner/possessor of the information.[footnoteRef:2] While … and Combating Techniques”, Indian……

References

Bibliography

Agarwal A. & CERT-IN. “Cyber Espionage, Infiltration and Combating Techniques.” Indian Computer Emergency Response Team, 2013.  https://www.cert-in.org.in/Downloader?pageid=5&type=2&fileName=CIPS-2013-0128.pdf " target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">

Study Document

Cyber Espionage

Pages: 7 (2040 words) Sources: 5 Document Type:Research Paper Document #:12891464

… study research design based on the Just War Theory will be utilized to conduct this research. Data will be collected from professionals in international relations and cyber security as well as existing publications on recent cyber espionage activities by China and Russia.
Keywords: cyber espionage, acceptability, proposition, state … security as well as existing publications on recent cyber espionage activities by China and Russia.
Keywords: cyber espionage, acceptability, proposition, state behavior, cyberattack, relations, intelligence gathering, national security.
Introduction
Cyberspace has become an important element ins the operations of any given country because of today’s information age. … use of cyberspace in modern warfare has also been characterized by the emergence of cyber espionage, which is one of the most complex international problems in today’s world. Cyber espionage refers to the practice of obtaining secrets without the permission of the owner/possessor of the information.[footnoteRef:2] While … and Combating Techniques”, Indian……

References

Bibliography

Agarwal A. & CERT-IN. “Cyber Espionage, Infiltration and Combating Techniques.” Indian Computer Emergency Response Team, 2013.  https://www.cert-in.org.in/Downloader?pageid=5&type=2&fileName=CIPS-2013-0128.pdf " target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">

Study Document

Influence Of The PRC With Great Power Competition Globalization

Pages: 6 (1708 words) Sources: 9 Document Type:Essay Document #:99402887

The Influence of the PRC
Introduction
The People’s Republic of China (PRC) is the state that most influences contemporary international security. The globalization of the Communist superpower projects brings employment and economic growth. Since joining the World Trade Organization, China has become an … the Communist Party began the process of opening up China’s economy, but did so without opening up much else in Chinese society (“The international of China’s Economy). By 2001, China joined the World Trade Organization, and at that time it was already growing its economy rapidly. Since … competition of ideas, practices and norms may not be overtly confrontational but does reveal significant strategic divergence between great powers (Pollack, nd). China’s relations, both with the West and with other Asia-Pacific powers, is characterized by its 20th and 21st century histories. Its relations with Japan is strongly influenced by the latter’s imperial ambitions in the 1930s, when……

References

References

Chatzky, A. & McBride, J. (2019) China’s massive Belt and Road Initiative. Council on Foreign Relations. In possession of the author.

“China as a Trading State” (n.d.) In possession of the author. s

“Foreign Direct Investment” (n.d.) In possession of the author.

Global Times (2018) Best strategic opportunity since the Cold War. Global Times. In possession of the author.

Hoffman, S. (2002) Clash of globalizations. Foreign Affairs. July/August 2002. 105-115.

Morrison, W. (2017) China’s economic rise: History, trends, challenges, and implications for the United States. Congressional Research Service. September 15, 2017. In possession of the author.

NIC (2017) Paradox of progress. National Intelligence Council. In possession of the author.

Pollack, J. (no date). Competing visions: China, America and the Asia-Pacific Security Order. In possession of the author.

Study Document

The Assassination Of Qassem Soleimani The Iranian General

Pages: 11 (3286 words) Sources: 13 Document Type:Research Paper Document #:89148612

The assassination of Major General Qassem Soleimani
Introduction
In early 2020, January 3, the U.S. launched airstrike attacks around Baghdad international Airport and killed two of the most influential leaders in Iran, Iraq, and the surrounding regions. The strike killed Qassem Soleimani, the Islamic … killing of General Soleiman amounted to inhibiting the U.S. interest in the region or promoted it, 3) whether the act constituted what the international Law refers to state-sponsored terrorism.
Soleiman was considered the brainchild and facilitator of the extensive reach of Iran in the region. He, indeed, … refers to state-sponsored terrorism.
Soleiman was considered the brainchild and facilitator of the extensive reach of Iran in the region. He, indeed, engineered relations with a large network of groups in the Middle East and elsewhere (Parker & Noack, 2020). Although the focus on the killing of … a united government. Thus, Trump failed in his executive……

References

References

Jahanbani, N. (2020). Beyond Soleimani: Implications for Iran\\\\\\\\\\\\'s Proxy Network in Iraq and Syria. CTC Perspectives.

Vladeck, S. I. (2004). Emergency Power and the Militia Acts. Yale LJ, 114, 149.

Brands, H. (2019). Why America Can\\\\\\\\\\\\" t Quit the Middle East. Hoover Institution, 21.

Tillman, S. P. (1982). The United States in the Middle East: Interests and Obstacles (Vol. 82). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Terry, J. P. (1986). Countering State-Sponsored Terrorism: A Law-Policy Analysis. Naval L. Rev., 36, 159.

Maogoto, J. N. (2003). War on the enemy: self-defense and state-sponsored terrorism. Melb. J. Int\\\\\\\\\\\\'l L., 4, 406.

Lillich, R. B., & Paxman, J. M. (1976). State Responsibility for Injuries to Aliens Occasioned by Terrorist Activities. Am. U.L. Rev., 26, 217.

Parker, C. & Noack, R. (2020, January 2). Iran has invested in allies and proxies across the Middle East. Here\\\\\\\\\\\\'s where they stand after Soleimani\\\\\\\\\\\\'s death. Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2020/01/03/iran-has-invested-allies-proxies-across-middle-east-heres-where-they-stand-after-soleimanis-death/

Study Document

FBI Drugs And WMDs

Pages: 11 (3378 words) Sources: 13 Document Type:Research Paper Document #:66505511

… proliferation of WMDs throughout the world. [2: Joseph Chinyong Liow, "The Mahathir administration's war against Islamic militancy: operational and ideological challenges." Australian Journal of international Affairs 58, no. 2 (2004), 242.]
Literature Review
The Development of a Strategy
As Mauroni points out, the plan to stop the spread and … or hold hostage the rest of the civilized world.[footnoteRef:6] The covert mission of rogue nations to possess WMDs is a threat to the international community, which means that there must be a high level of interaction, cooperation, collaboration, and communication among the allied nations of the international community. A counterproliferation strategy that does not have this level of collaboration will not be an effective one. The problem that the current … one: with the rising tide of populism and nationalism all over the world, more and more nations that should be allied in the international community are becoming less open to……

References

Bibliography

Arnold, Aaron and Daniel Salisbury, “The Long Arm,” Belfer Center, 2019. https://www.belfercenter.org/publication/long-arm

Carter, Ashton B. "Overhauling counterproliferation." Technology in Society 26, no. 2-3 (2004): 257-269.

The Commission to Assess the Organization of the Federal Government to Combat the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction. “Combating Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction,” Washington, D.C., 1999.

FBI. “COINTELPRO.”  https://vault.fbi.gov/cointel-pro 

FBI Counterproliferation Center. “About.”  https://www.fbi.gov/about/leadership-and-structure/national-security-branch/fbi-counterproliferation-center 

Fischer, Rowena Rege. “Guide to the Study of Intelligence: Counterproliferation,” Journal of U.S. Intelligence Studies 21, no. 1 (Winter 2014-15), 78-82.

Liow, Joseph Chinyong. "The Mahathir administration's war against Islamic militancy: operational and ideological challenges." Australian Journal of International Affairs 58, no. 2 (2004): 241-256.

Manchikanti, Laxmaiah, Jaya Sanapati, Ramsin M. Benyamin, Sairam Atluri, Alan D. Kaye, and Joshua A. Hirsch. "Reframing the prevention strategies of the opioid crisis: focusing on prescription opioids, fentanyl, and heroin epidemic." Pain physician 21, no. 4 (2018): 309-326.

Study Document

Counterterrorism Strategy For The Next U S Presidential Administration

Pages: 6 (1889 words) Sources: 6 Document Type:Term Paper Document #:70457523

… the U.S. to wage war on Iran. Russia, Iran, Turkey and Syria all want the U.S. presence of troops out of the area. international relations are at a low. The U.S. counterterrorism strategy up to now has thus led to some successes but considerably more failures in terms ……

References

References

Bipartisan Policy Center. (2017). Defeating terrorists, not terrorism. Retrieved from  https://bipartisanpolicy.org/report/counterterrorism-policy-from-911-to-isis/ 

Englehardt, T. (2018). America’s war on terror. Retrieved from  https://www.thenation.com/article/americas-war-on-terror-has-cost-taxpayers-5-6-trillion/ 

Freeman, M. (2018). ISIS Is a US-Israeli Creation. Top Ten “Indications.” Retrieved from https://www.globalresearch.ca/isis-is-a-us-israeli-creation-top-ten-indications/5518627

Malzahn, S. M. (2002). State Sponsorship and Support of International Terrorism: Customary Norms of State Responsibility. Hastings Int'l & Comp. L. Rev., 26, 83.

Nordland, R. & Mashal, M. (2019). U.S. and Taliban Edge Toward Deal to End America’s Longest War. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2019/01/26/world/asia/afghanistan-taliban-peace-deal.html

White House. (2003). National strategy for combating terrorism. Retrieved from  https://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2003/02/20030214-7.html 

Study Document

The EU And European Goverments

Pages: 1 (410 words) Sources: 2 Document Type:Essay Document #:60649240

How has the relations between the economy and European governments changed in the past 20 years? Has Eastern Europe become more like the western part of the … existence of the Eastern Bloc must be questioned, given that there are substantial rifts between former members, in terms of integration with Europe, relations with Russia, and embrace of the EU (Lehne, 2019). Lower wages and a generally lower standard of living may unite Eastern European nations ……

References

References

Belin, C. & Reinert, T. (2019). The eclipse of the European Union’s global influence. The Brookings Institute. Retrieved from:  https://www.brookings.edu/blog/order-from-chaos/2019/04/08/the-eclipse-of-the - european-unions-global-influence/

Lehne, S. (2019). Europe’s East-West divide: Myth or reality? Carnegie Europe. Retrieved from:  https://carnegieeurope.eu/2019/04/11/europe-s-east-west-divide-myth-or-reality-pub-78847 

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