Interest Rates Essays (Examples)

Study Document

How Interest Rates Compare Over The Last Decade Within The United

Pages: 6 (1728 words) Sources: 6 Document Type:Essay Document #:11480675

interest rates form the basis for valuation models around the world. They are used in almost every industry, country, and geography. interest rates can also influence corporate and consumer behaviors. For example, depending on the inherent risk of a consumer, credit card rates determine how much an individual must pay on a month basis to the financial institution. Corporations looking to borrow funds to expand their … pay on a month basis to the financial institution. Corporations looking to borrow funds to expand their market share must consider the variable interest rates being changed and their ability to service the debt. Even governments must be mindful of the extent of their borrowers and the corresponding … and their ability to service the debt. Even governments must be mindful of the extent of their borrowers and the corresponding impact of interest rates on their ability to services the debt. Due primarily……

References

References

1. Goodhard, C and E Perotti, 2008 “Maturity mismatch stretching: Banking has taken a wrong turn”, CEPR Policy Insight 81, 6-July

2. Holston, Laubach, and Williams. 2017. “Measuring the Natural Rate of Interest: International Trends and Determinants,” Journal of International Economics 108, supplement 1 (May): S39–S75

3. Laubach and Williams. 2003. “Measuring the Natural Rate of Interest,” Review of Economics and Statistics 85, no.4 (November): 1063-70.

4. Rachel, L. and Smith, T.D., 2017. Are low real interest rates here to stay?. International Journal of Central Banking, 13(3), pp.1-42.

5. Schularick, M, and A M Taylor, (2009), “Credit Booms Gone Bust: Monetary Policy, Leverage Cycles and Financial Crises, 1870-2008”, NBER DP 15512

6. Stock, J.H. and Watson, M.W., 2007. Why has US inflation become harder to forecast?. Journal of Money, Credit and banking, 39, pp.3-33

Study Document

Strategies To Improve Retention Rates At A Consulting Firm

Pages: 8 (2352 words) Sources: 7 Document Type:Research Proposal Document #:75835646

… fact, in some professions, replacement costs for employees can easily equal their annual salary or even more, so identifying strategies to reduce turnover rates represents a valuable and timely enterprise. To this end, the purpose of this proposal is to provide a description of the problems of … represents a valuable and timely enterprise. To this end, the purpose of this proposal is to provide a description of the problems of interest and what can be done to mitigate these issues. A description of the implications of implementing the career management program is followed by … Likewise, a growing number of companies of all sizes and types are using exit interviews as a strategy to reduce their unplanned turnover rates (Christie, 2014). In addition, a growing number of companies have also recognized the need to provide employees with the training and tools they ……

References

References

Christie, J. (2014, September). Cochrane review brief: Exit interviews to reduce turnover amongst healthcare professionals. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. 19(3), 7-11.

Dobbs, K. (2009, April). Knowing how to keep your best and brightest. Workforce, 80(4), 56-60.

Hansen, F. (2009, March 27). Refining signing bonuses. Workforce Management, 85(6), 1-3.

Johns, R. & Gorrick, J. (2016, April). Exploring the behavioral options of exit and voice in the exit interview process. International Journal of Employment Studies, 24(1), 25-29.

Ohunakin, F. & Adeniji, A. (2018, March). Perception of frontline employees towards career growth opportunities: Implications on turnover untention. Business: Theory and Practice, 19(1), 278-283.

Tatham, P. (2008, Spring). At my desk. Australian Journal of Career Development, 17(3), 6-9.

Turnover rates by industry. (2019). Compensation Force. Retrieved from  https://www.compensationforce.com/2017/04/2016-turnover-rates-by-industry.html .

Study Document

The Future Of Corporate

Pages: 1 (373 words) Sources: 1 Document Type:Essay Document #:76034098

interest rates and Inflation
The macroeconomic variable that corporate financial managers should be preparing for in the next 5 to 10 years is the interest rate. If rates rise, markets are going to turn downward quickly. Low rates makes it easier to borrow, easier for companies to issue cheap debt, and easier for the government to do the same (Hall, 2019). … it easier to borrow, easier for companies to issue cheap debt, and easier for the government to do the same (Hall, 2019). If rates rise, debt becomes expensive and if the economy is carrying too much debt and individuals and companies are over-leveraged a serious crisis could … is carrying too much debt and individuals and companies are over-leveraged a serious crisis could occur in the market. The downside to keeping interest rates low is that it encourages risky borrowing and investment in risk assets like equities. If……

References

References

Hall, M. (2019). How do interest rates affect the stock market? Retrieved from  https://www.investopedia.com/investing/how-interest-rates-affect-stock-market/ 

Study Document

Federal Reserve Operations And Market Impact

Pages: 4 (1239 words) Sources: 4 Document Type:Essay Document #:28039044

… is the central bank, to control credit and its flow within the United States economy. Significantly, what occurs with money and credit influences interest rates and also the performance of the nation’s economy as a whole (Federal Reserve Education, n.d).
The Federal Reserve presently utilizes numerous tools in … On the one hand, a low reserve requirement enables banks to carry out greater lending of bank deposits and, in the long run, rates credit.
On the other hand, a high reserve requirement makes it more challenging for banks to lend out money. Conceivably, the most renowned … meet the reserve requirement, then it is conceivable to borrow funds from a different bank that currently has excess cash. The rate of interest paid is the feds funds rate Federal Reserve, 2017).
For example, at the culmination of the 2013 fiscal year, the central bank necessitated ……

References

References

Brandl, M. (2020). Money, banking, financial markets & institutions. New York: Cengage Learning.

Federal Reserve Education. (n.d). Monetary Policy Basics. Retrieved from:  https://www.federalreserveeducation.org/about-the-fed/structure-and-functions/monetary-policy 

Federal Reserve. (2017). Monetary Policy Tools. Retrieved from:  https://www.federalreserve.gov/monetarypolicy/bsd-monetary-policy-tools-201711.htm 

Lumen Learning. (n.d). Macroeconomics: How a Central Bank Executes Monetary Policy. Retrieved from:  https://courses.lumenlearning.com/suny-macroeconomics/chapter/tools-of-monetary-policy/ 

Study Document

The Government S Economic Policies Effect Good Or Bad Economy

Pages: 4 (1226 words) Sources: 5 Document Type:Essay Document #:48706943

… policy is classified as the procedure by which the Federal Reserve uses monetary policy tools to regulate the money supply, exchange rate, and interest rates (the price of money) to stabilize the economy (Labonte, 2020). The interest rate is classified as the cost of borrowing and the reward for saving. The money supply can be defined as the total sum … the discount rate (Labonte, 2020). Open market functions indicate the selling and buying of government securities in an open market to influence short-term interest rates.
Monetary policy can either be an expansionary policy or contractionary policy. Expansionary monetary policy is a policy aimed at increasing the level of … at increasing the level of money supply within an economy. It is traditionally used to reduce unemployment during the recession because it lowers interest rates and increases aggregate demand. With a low-interest rate, entrepreneurs can expand their existing businesses……

References

References

Federal Reserve. (2020, March 15). Federal open market committee. Retrieved March 30, 2020, from  https://www.federalreserve.gov/monetarypolicy/fomccalendars.htm 

Labonte, M. (2020). Monetary policy and the Federal Reserve: Current policy and conditions (RL30354). Retrieved from Congressional Research Service website:  https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL30354.pdf 

Madimutsa, C. (2008). The Policy Formulation Process. Retrieved from  https://www.researchgate.net/publication/336927323_The_Policy_Formulation_Proce ss

McGraw-Hill Education. (n.d.). The role of government. Retrieved from  https://www.jasonsclassroom.com/social-studies/cc-basics/chapter-5/lesson-5.3/ 

Suman, S. (2015, October 26). Monetary policy: Objectives, advantages, and disadvantages. Retrieved from  https://www.economicsdiscussion.net/monetary-policy/advantages/monetary-policy-objectives-advantages-and-disadvantages/12768 

Study Document

The Phillips Cure And Unemployment

Pages: 7 (2166 words) Sources: 7 Document Type:Essay Document #:92308322

… policy is to continue to inflate the asset bubble or risk bringing down the entire global financial system when confidence in that system rates.
Conclusion
By trying to intervene in the markets through the manipulation of inflation rates in order to reduce unemployment, the central bank creates an effect opposite of what it intends: it speeds along inflation while doing effectively ……

References

References

Amadeo, K. (2019). Unemployment rate by year since 1929 compared to inflation and GDP. Retrieved from  https://www.thebalance.com/unemployment-rate-by-year-3305506 

FRED. (2019). FRED Graph. Retrieved from  https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/LNU04000024#0 

Friedman, M. (1977). Nobel lecture: inflation and unemployment. Journal of political economy, 85(3), 451-472.

Heller, R. (2017). Monetary mischief and the debt trap. Cato Journal, 37(2), 247-261.

Lucas, R. E., & Rapping, L. A. (1969). Price expectations and the Phillips curve. The American Economic Review, 59(3), 342-350.

Stiglitz, J. (1997). Reflections on the natural rate hypothesis. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 11(1), 3-10.

Wulwick, N. J. (1987). The Phillips curve: which? whose? to do what? how?. Southern Economic Journal, 834-857.

Study Document

Brazilian Market Entry Pricing Strategy

Pages: 11 (3155 words) Sources: 11 Document Type:Reaction Paper Document #:56127693

… doesn’t know the Brazilian market well. It’s distributor in the country, Amazonas, does have some in-market knowledge but because it has a vested interest in what strategy Peak adopts, Amazonas may not be a source of unbiased information. So there is a need to trust Amazonas, or … competitor to undercut the Kilimanjaro with an equivalent quality harness.
There is also the threat associated with foreign currency exchange risk. When exchange rates change, the value of the profits earned in a country can change as well. If Peak adopts penetration pricing, for example, that would … should the exchange rate of the Brazilian real fluctuate in the wrong direction. Peak has to consider what the impact of fluctuating exchange rates will be on its pricing strategy. The real is current in a partial float against the dollar, meaning that there will be some … are other ways to hedge……

References

References

Chappelow, J. (2019) Monopolistic competition. Investopedia. Retrieved March 28, 2020 from https://www.investopedia.com/terms/m/monopolisticmarket.asp

CIA World Factbook. (2020) Brazil. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved March 28, 2020 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/br.html

Decker, A. (2020) The ultimate guide to pricing strategies HubSpot. Retrieved March 28, 2020 from  https://blog.hubspot.com/sales/pricing-strategy 

Dourado, A., Canabrava, L, Spadano, L, Alvarenga, P., Salles, R., Advogados, F., Lourencao, M. & Trung, T. (2019) Doing business in Brazil: An overview. Thomson Reuters Practical Law. Retrieved March 28, 2020 from  https://uk.practicallaw.thomsonreuters.com/0-503-8385?__lrTS=20180603124715781&transitionType=Default&contextData= (sc.Default)&firstPage=true&bhcp=1#co_anchor_a102539

Downey, L. (2019) Brazilian real. Investopedia. Retrieved March 28, 2020 from https://www.investopedia.com/terms/forex/a/brl-brazilian-real.asp

Furgison, L. (2019) SWOT analysis, step 5: developing actionable strategies. BPlans.com. Retrieved March 28, 2020 from  https://articles.bplans.com/swot-analysis-challenge-day-5-turning-swot-analysis-actionable-strategies/ 

Kokemuller, N. (2020) Entry pricing strategy. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved March 28, 2020 from  https://smallbusiness.chron.com/entry-pricing-strategy-61428.html 

Riley, C. (2019) Jair Bolsinaro says Brazil is open for business. CNN Business. Retrieved March 28, 2020 from https://www.cnn.com/2019/01/22/business/bolsonaro-brazil-davos-foreign-investment/index.html

Study Document

Understanding The Factors Affecting The Success Of Credit Risk In

Pages: 11 (3237 words) Sources: 15 Document Type:Research Paper Document #:41178734

… are factors that have an influence on the economy of a nation as a whole and comprise of different variables including the prevailing interest rates, the rate of inflation in the country, unemployment rates, the level of consumer consumption, and also gross domestic product (GDP). Research conducted by Vazquez et al. (2012) establishes that here is a … that there exists a positive correlation between non-performing loans and macro-economic variables including high rate of inflation, the rate of unemployment, and the interest rates. High inclinations of credit risk go in tandem with high rate of inflation, high interest rates, in addition to high unemployment rate. This is largely for the reason that they restrict the capacity of borrowing in addition to increasing … 2016).
Microeconomic Factors
The basis of micro-economic factors that give rise to credit risk comprise of restricted institutional capability, unsuitable credit policies, unpredictable interest rates, poor……

References

References

Bhattarai, Y. R. (2016). Effect of credit risk on the performance of Nepalese commercial banks. NRB Economic Review, 28(1), 41-64.

Das, A. and Ghosh, S. (2007). Determinants of Credit Risk in Indian State-owned Banks: An Empirical Investigation. Economic Issues, 12(2): 48-66.

Derelio?lu, G., & Gürgen, F. (2011). Knowledge discovery using neural approach for SME’s credit risk analysis problem in Turkey. Expert Systems with Applications, 38(8), 9313-9318

Garr, D. K. (2013). Determinants of credit risk in the banking industry of Ghana. Developing Country Studies, 3(11), 64-77.

Gizaw, M., Kebede, M., & Selvaraj, S. (2015). The impact of credit risk on profitability performance of commercial banks in Ethiopia. African Journal of Business Management, 9(2), 59-66.

Johnson, B., & Christensen, L. (2008). Educational research: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed approaches. New York: Sage.

Kithinji, A. M. (2010). Credit risk management and profitability of commercial banks in Kenya. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nairobi).

Limam, I. (2001). Measuring technical efficiency of Kuwaiti banks. Kuwait: Arab Planning Institute.

Study Document

Enterprise Risk Management In Wells Fargo During The Pandemic

Pages: 15 (4587 words) Sources: 15 Document Type:Essay Document #:32848070

… filed for bankruptcy. All of this impacts the banking sector and Wells Fargo specifically because of its role in managing loan products, using interest rates to attract savers, and offering investment advice. “No single risk associated with the COVID-19 pandemic crisis can be managed in isolation,” as Beasley ……

References

References

Beasley, M. (2020). How to Leverage ERM Principles to Better Respond to COVID-19-Related Risks. ERM Professional Insights.

Derysh, I. (2020). Watchdog questions why Wells Fargo reported giving only one large PPP loan to a Black-owned business. Retrieved from  https://www.salon.com/2020/07/22/watchdog-questions-why-wells-fargo-reported-giving-only-one-large-ppp-loan-to-a-black-owned-business/ 

English, C. (2020). Wells Fargo Forced to Cut Its Dividend After Fed Stress Test. Here’s What Other Banks Did. Retrieved from  https://www.barrons.com/articles/wells-fargo-forced-to-cut-its-dividend-after-fed-stress-test-51593467664 

Hall, J. (2007). Internal Auditing and ERM: Fitting in and Adding Value. Retrieved from https://global.theiia.org/about/about-the-iia/Public Documents/Sawyer_Award_2007.pdf

Kaplan, R. & Mikes, A. (2012). Managing risks: A new framework. Harvard Business Review, 3.

Lewis, M. (2010). The Big Short. NY: W. W. Norton.

Lundqvist, S. (2014). Abandoning Silos for Integration: Implementing Enterprise Risk Management and Risk Governance. Lund University.

Morgenson, G. (2020). More Wells Fargo customers say the bank decided to pause their mortgage payments without asking. Retrieved from https://www.nbcnews.com/business/personal-finance/more-wells-fargo-customers-say-bank-decided-pause-their-mortgage-n1234610

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