...Government The Tactics of the British Intelligence against the IRA
History of the IRA
The Provisional IRA formed in response to a war between the Irish Republican Army and the British state in Northern Ireland from 1969 to 1998. The IRA or what is commonly referred to as the IRA in the West was actually a breakaway from the Army and is better known as PIRA in Ireland. However, because it stood as the fighting force and face of the Irish resistance, it is typically referred to as IRA for short. The IRA was a formal fighting force up until the 1970s when fears of British infiltration caused the IRA to become a secret organization with a cell structure. The IRA published its Green Book, which laid out the rules of being an IRA volunteer. Meanwhile, on the political front was Sinn Fein, which negotiated behind the scenes with the British……
Bamford, B. (2005). The Role and Effectiveness of Intelligence in Northern Ireland. Intelligence and National Security, 20(4), 581-607.
Branch, S., Shallcross, L., Barker, M., Ramsay, S., & Murray, J. P. (2018). Theoretical Frameworks That Have Explained Workplace Bullying: Retracing Contributions Across the Decades. Concepts, Approaches and Methods, 1-44.
Coogan, T. P. (2002). The IRA. New York: Palgrave.
Hilton, J. L., & Von Hippel, W. (1996). Stereotypes. Annual review of psychology, 47(1), 237-271.
IRA Green Book. (1977). Accessed 14 Dec 2015 from https://tensmiths.files.wordpress.com/2012/08/15914572-ira-green-book-volumes-1-and-2.pdf
Lumen. (2019). Theoretical perspectives on deviance. Retrieved from https://courses.lumenlearning.com/sociology/chapter/theoretical-perspectives-on-deviance/
Maloney, E. (2010). Voices from the Grave: Two Men’s War in Ireland. NY: Faber, Faber.
McLeod, S. (2008) Social Identity Theory. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/social-identity-theory.html
...Government Language Culture Society and Politics during the Trump Administration
Political Correctness (PC) in Modern Politics: An Assessment of the Trump Presidency
When Donald Trump launched his campaign for the highest seat in the land, most people – including most political analysts – did not believe he stood a chance. Here was a reality TV show host and real estate billionaire known for his brash language and liking for controversy. He simply did not fit the political mold, which, due to the constant need to balance the interests of various stakeholders and ensure that no constituency feels aggrieved, was created to enable politicians to be politically correct (PC). Yet voters seemed to like that Trump had a non-PC, no-holds-barred approach: it endeared him to millions of viewers of his TV show around the world. Perhaps most surprisingly, this inexperienced, political new-entrant ended up beating seasoned politicians – with the first……
Conway, L.C. (2020). How a cultural revolt against “political correctness” helped launch Trump into the presidency. Retrieved from https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/usappblog/2018/02/28/how-a-cultural-revolt-against-political-correctness-helped-launch-trump-into-the-presidency/
Hart, R.P. (2020). Trump and us: What he says and why people listen. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Morini, M. (2020). Lessons from Trumps Political Communication: How to Dominate the Media Environment. Belmont, CA: Springer Nature.
Marron, M.B. (2019). Misogyny and media in the age of Trump. New York, NY: Rowman & Littlefield.
Mooney, A. & Evans, B. (2015). Language, society and power. New York, NY: Routledge.
NPR (2016). 'Politically correct': The phrase has gone from wisdom to weapon. Retrieved from https://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2016/12/14/505324427/politically-correct-the-phrase-has-gone-from-wisdom-to-weapo n
Travers, M. (2019). In new research, psychologists explore the upside of political incorrectness. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/traversmark/2019/10/09/in-new-research-psychologists-explore-the-upside-of-political-incorrectness/#7935b4c252af
Woodhouse, L. (2018). Trump’s shithole countries remark is at the center of a lawsuit to reinstate protections for immigrants. Retrieved from https://theintercept.com/2018/06/28/trump-tps-shithole-countries-lawsuit/
Globalization has opened up international markets for almost all good including sex trade. It has also made it easy for traffickers to move women from one country to another and force them to join the sex trade. According to Brewer (2009), with the increasingly integrated world economy has allowed human trafficking to thrive. Human trafficking thrives since the perpetrators make use of well-organized criminal syndicates that use an array of complex and evasive tactics to evade the law. Money is channeled back to the country through elaborate money-laundering schemes using underground banks. Prostitution has now become a globalized commodity with women being forced to partake in the trade against their wishes (Watson, June 18, 2009). The perpetrates lure the women with the promise of jobs and a lucrative life and they entice them to come to a foreign country. When the women arrive their passports and return tickets are……
Brewer, D. (2009). Globalization and human trafficking. Topical Research Digest: Human rights and human trafficking, 2009, 46-56.
Griffith, A. (May 02, 2017). Stop “Saving” Women: A Transnational Feminist Approach. Retrieved from https://www.huffpost.com/entry/stop-saving-women-a-transnational-feminist-approach_b_5908ca52e4b084f59b49fd4b
Valoy, P. (January 28, 2015). Transnational Feminism: Why Feminist Activism Needs to Think Globally. Retrieved from https://everydayfeminism.com/2015/01/why-we-need-transnational-feminism/
Watson, C. (June 18, 2009). The globalization of sex. Retrieved from https://www.cbc.ca/news/world/the-globalization-of-sex-1.777957
...Government Q1. In the United States there is a constant argument against “coddling” prisoners. This includes such “luxuries” as television and exercise/fitness programs. What are the pros and cons concerning these activities?
But there is no evidence that making prison as miserable as possible acts as a deterrent or rehabilitates prisoners. In fact, having an outlet for physical and mental energy may be useful, versus allowing such undirected energies into less fruitful channels, such as engaging in covert criminal activities within the prison. In fact, instead of merely offering access to gyms and television, an even more structured approach may be preferable. This might include access to libraries, educational programs, and rehabilitative programs such as starting a prison garden (“10 Keys, 2020). Other examples of rehabilitative work that is useful for prisoners as well as acts to restore the harm done by crime to society include participating in public beautification programs……
10 keys to improving conditions in overcrowded prisons. (2020). Restorative Justice. Retrieved from: http://restorativejustice.org/am-site/media/overcrowding-en.pdf
...Government The topic of this paper is social media and its role in the 2016 presidential election.
Allcott, H., & Gentzkow, M. (2017). Social media and fake news in the 2016 election. Journal of economic perspectives, 31(2), 211-36.
Article posits that users of social media are more likely to believe news stories about their chosen or preferred candidate when the stories fall in line with the person’s ideological views. The article is helpful in explaining how social media and “fake news” works and can be used to make sense of the 2016 election.
Enli, G. (2017). Twitter as arena for the authentic outsider: Exploring the social media campaigns of Trump and Clinton in the 2016 US presidential election. European journal of communication, 32(1), 50-61.
Article shows that Trump’s use of Twitter to communicate with the masses was more authentic than Clinton’s and thus had a bigger impact in the election. The article’s……
...Government Despite possessing overwhelming military power, the United States has sometimes struggled to achieve political objectives for a variety of reasons: first, the U.S. changes its administration every four to eight years and this means a new approach to policy is brought in each time, which makes it difficult for a consistent international policy to take hold. Second, if “strategy is a concept for relating means to ends,”[footnoteRef:2] the means (military power) may stay the same but the ends are changing every time power changes hands, which means strategy is always undergoing redevelopment. Thus, the political objectives are not achieved because the objectives may change along with strategy. Third, the global opinion towards the U.S. has itself changed over time, meaning that allies are more and more hesitant to work with the U.S. after the disastrous Iraq War and the bungling of the Libyan regime change and the Syrian intervention. The……
Builder, Carl H. “The Masks of War: American Military Styles in Strategy and Analysis.”
Gray, Colin S. “Why Strategy is Difficult,” JFQ.
Habeck, Mary. “Why They Did It,” Knowing the Enemy: Jihadist Ideology and the War on Terror.”
Walt, Stephen. “Why Alliances Endure or Collapse,” Survival, vol. 39, no. 1 (Spring 1997), 156-179.
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