...Comparison Danville School District ESOL program handbook contains policies and procedures that help English language learners (ELLs) attain English proficiency. The key components of the handbook include 1) the district’s legal obligations to ELLs and their parents, 2) the district’s procedures for identifying, assessing and placing students in ESOL program, 3) the district’s educational approach and curriculum, 4) the district’s methods and procedures for students exiting from ESOL program, and 5) the district’s method of evaluating the effectiveness of the ESOL program (“Danville School District ESOL Program Handbook,”2019). The remainder of this paper elaborates on how the above key components of the handbook are consistent with language policies reviewed in this course.
Danville School District legal obligations to ELLs and their parents
Below are some of the legal reasons why the district has an ESOL program.
The Civil Rights of 1964, Title VI
Title VI of the 1964 Civil Rights Act……
Danville School District ESOL Program Handbook. (2019, October). Cloud Object Storage | Store & Retrieve Data Anywhere | Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3). https://s3.amazonaws.com/scschoolfiles/364/esl_handbook_updated_oct_2019_1.pdf
Díaz-Rico, L. T., & Weed, K. Z. (2010). The Crosscultural, language, and academic development handbook: A complete K-12 reference guide (4th ed.). Allyn & Bacon.
Sutton, L. C., Cornelius, L., & McDonald-Gordon, R. (2012). English language learners and judicial oversight: Progeny of Castaneda. Educational Considerations, 39(2). https://doi.org/10.4148/0146-9282.1111
U.S. Department of Education. (2012, May). Language Instruction Educational Programs (LIEPs): A Review of the Foundational Literature. https://www2.ed.gov/rschstat/eval/title-iii/language-instruction-ed-programs-report.pdf
U.S. Department of Justice. (2019, October 15). Types of educational opportunities discrimination. https://www.justice.gov/crt/types-educational-opportunities-discrimination
...Comparison Comparing the U.S. Health Care System to Other Countries
The US health care system compares favorably to some other countries in terms of long-term costs but unfavorably to others in terms of quality of care. However, statistics about costs can be misleading because there are administrative costs and long-term care costs; there are also tax payer costs in countries like the UK and Japan, where health care has been nationalized. So household expenses may seem high in the US but in the UK they are also high if one takes into consideration how much they are taxed to pay for universal coverage. This paper will compare the health care systems of the US, UK, Japan, France and India to see how they well they stack up.
Coverage in the US is both private and public. The government provides coverage for individuals through Medicare and Medicaid if they meet an……
Carroll, A. & Frakt, A. (2017). Best health care system. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2017/09/18/upshot/best-health-care-system-country-bracket.html
CMS. (2010). Annual statistics. Retrieved from https://www.cms.gov/Research-Statistics-Data-and-Systems/Statistics-Trends-and-Reports/NationalHealthExpendData/downloads/proj2008.pdf
IOM. (2010). The future of nursing. Retrieved from http://nacns.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/5-IOM-Report.pdf
Lau, J. S., Adams, S. H., Park, M. J., Boscardin, W. J., & Irwin, C. E. (2014). Improvement in preventive care of young adults after the Affordable Care Act: the Affordable Care Act is helping. JAMA pediatrics, 168(12), 1101-1106.
O’Brien, J. (2003). How nurse practitioners obtained provider status: Lessons for pharmacists. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 60(22), 2301-2307.
Peter G. Peterson Foundation. (2019). US healthcare compared. Retrieved from https://www.pgpf.org/blog/2019/07/how-does-the-us-healthcare-system-compare-to-other-countrie s
Sawyer, B. & McDermott, D. (2019). Quality of care compared. Retrieved from https://www.healthsystemtracker.org/chart-collection/quality-u-s-healthcare-system-compare-countries/#item-start
WHO. (2018). Health report. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/whr/2000/media_centre/press_release/en/
...Comparison PICOT Question
Low back pain is a common health challenge for both active and former military service members. Among the military veterans, low back pain places higher risk and has been indicated to be bear the potential for long-term disability (Bagg et al., 2017). There is a lack of effective treatment strategies, and thus, military veterans rely on pain management strategies and other medical strategies, e.g., medical imaging, opioids, injections, and surgery. To both the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Department of Veteran Affairs (VA), the costs of care for members with low back pain have been on the rise; necessitating the need for research on the effectiveness of some of the available methods for treating and managing low back pain. Some of the methods available are non-narcotic pain medication, yoga stretches, and physiotherapy. These interventions can be administered in combination or singly (Bagg et al., 2017). This……
Bagg, M. K., Hübscher, M., Rabey, M., Wand, B. M., O’Hagan, E., Moseley, G. L., ... & O’Connell, N. E. (2017). The RESOLVE Trial for people with chronic low back pain: protocol for a randomized clinical trial. Journal of physiotherapy, 63(1), 47-48.
Chou, R., Deyo, R., Friedly, J., Skelly, A., Hashimoto, R., Weimer, M., ... & Grusing, S. (2017). Nonpharmacologic therapies for low back pain: a systematic review for an American College of Physicians clinical practice guideline. Annals of internal medicine, 166(7), 493-505.
Dehghan, M., & FarahbOD, F. (2014). The efficacy of thermotherapy and cryotherapy on pain relief in patients with acute low back pain, a clinical trial study. Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR, 8(9), LC01.
Denneson, L. M., Corson, K., & Dobscha, S. K. (2011). Complementary and alternative medicine use among veterans with chronic noncancer pain—Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, 48(9).
Guzmán, J., Esmail, R., Karjalainen, K., Malmivaara, A., Irvin, E., & Bombardier, C. (2001). Multidisciplinary rehabilitation for chronic low back pain: systematic review. BMJ, 322(7301), 1511-1516.
Hayden, J. A., Van Tulder, M. W., & Tomlinson, G. (2005). Systematic review: strategies for using exercise therapy to improve outcomes in chronic low back pain. Annals of internal medicine, 142(9), 776-785.
Kim, E. J., Choi, Y. D., Lim, C. Y., Kim, K. H., & Lee, S. D. (2015). Effect of heating and cooling combination therapy on patients with chronic low back pain: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials, 16(1), 285.
Nitsure, P. V., Pathania, T. S., & Bilgi, T. A. (2014). Comparison of elastic resistance band exercises and yoga in physiotherapy students with chronic non-specific low back pain: a randomized clinical trial. Journal of Yoga & Physical Therapy, 5, 180.
… & Ichikura (2014) sought to systematically appraise proof for the acceptability and efficacy of group cognitive-behavioral therapy among patients suffering from depression in comparison to the four psychological intervention intensity levels. The findings revealed that an average influence in favor of group cognitive-behavioral therapy compared with inactive ……
Australian Psychological Society. (2010). Evidence?based psychological interventions in the treatment of mental disorders: A literature review. Victoria: Australian Psychological Association.
Barth, J., Munder, T., Gerger, H., Nüesch, E., Trelle, S., Znoj, H., ... & Cuijpers, P. (2016). Comparative efficacy of seven psychotherapeutic interventions for patients with depression: a network meta-analysis. Focus, 14(2), 229-243.
Castelnuovo, G. (2017). New and old adventures of clinical health psychology in the twenty-first century: standing on the shoulders of giants. Frontiers in psychology, 8, 1214.
Hofmann, S. G., Asnaani, A., Vonk, I. J., Sawyer, A. T., & Fang, A. (2012). The efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Cognitive therapy and research, 36(5), 427-440.
Hughes, A. M., Gordon, R., Chalder, T., Hirsch, C. R., & Moss?Morris, R. (2016). Maximizing the potential impact of experimental research into cognitive processes in health psychology: A systematic approach to material development. British journal of health psychology, 21(4), 764-780.
Kirkham, J. G., Choi, N., & Seitz, D. P. (2016). Meta?analysis of problem solving therapy for the treatment of major depressive disorder in older adults. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 31(5), 526-535.
Lenz, A. S., Hall, J., & Bailey Smith, L. (2016). Meta-analysis of group mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for decreasing symptoms of acute depression. The Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 41(1), 44-70.
Linde, K., Rücker, G., Sigterman, K., Jamil, S., Meissner, K., Schneider, A., & Kriston, L. (2015). Comparative effectiveness of psychological treatments for depressive disorders in primary care: network meta-analysis. BMC family practice, 16(1), 103.
… costs might be higher (high outpatient and pharmacy costs) due to resulting mental health problems despite lower overall costs incurred by women in comparison to army men. It is important to understand that V.A. (Veteran Affairs) mental health costs based on gender differ among veterans of the … higher in females as compared to males. The difference was observed on the basis that women used more V.A. health care services in comparison with men. The data would have varied if the women using health care services were outside V.A. service, but this may provide a ……
Adams, R.E., Urosevich, T.G., Hoffman, S.N., Kirchner, H.L., Figley, C.R., Withey, C.A., Boscarino, J.J., Dugan, R.J. & Boscarino, J.A. (2019). Social and psychological risk and protective factors for veteran well-being: The role of veteran identity and its implications for intervention. Military Behavioral Health, 7(3), 304-314. https://doi.org/10.1080/21635781.2019.1580642
Allore, H.G., Ning, Y., Brandt, C.A., & Goulet, J.L. (2013). Accounting for the hierarchical structure in veterans’ health administration data: Differences in healthcare utilization between men and women veterans. International Journal of Statistics in Medical Research, 2(2), 94-103. DOI: 10.6000/1929-6029.2013.02.02.03
Brooks, C. & Chopik, W. (2010, June 17). Research finds deployment affects mental health of veterans differently. Michigan State University. https://msutoday.msu.edu/news/2020/research-finds-deployment-affects-mental-health-of-veterans-differently/
Duggal, M., Goulet, J.L., Womack, J., Gordon, K., Mattocks, K., Haskell, S.G., Justice, A.C. & Brandt, C.A. (2010). Comparison of outpatient health care utilization among returning women and men veterans from Afghanistan and Iraq. BMS Health Services Research, 10 (175). https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6963-10-175
Harpaz-Rotem, I. & Rosenheck, R.A. (2011). Serving those who served: Retention of newly returning veterans from Iraq and Afghanistan in mental health treatment. Psychiatric Services, 62(1), 22-27. DOI: 10.1176/ps.62.1.pss6201_0022.
Haskel, S.G., Brandt, C.A., Krebs, E.E., Skanderson, M., Kerns, R.D., & Goulet, J.L. (2009). Pain among veterans of operations enduring freedom and Iraqi freedom: Do women and men differ? Pain Medicine, 10(7), 1167-1173. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1526- 4637.2009.00714.x
Kaur, S., Stechuchak, K.M., Coffman, C.J., Allen, K.D., & Bastain, L.A. (2007). Gender differences in health care utilization among veterans with chronic pain. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 22(2), 228-233. DOI: 10.1007/s11606-006-0048-5
Koo, K.H., Madden, E. & Maguen, S. (2015). Race, ethnicity, and gender differences in V.A. health care service utilization among U.S. veterans of recent conflicts. Psychiatric Services, 66(5), 507-513. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.201300498
… rational choice theory.
Alleyne & Wood (2013)
This research work studied the mental, behavioral, and societal factors linked to gang offenses. Using a comparison of group offenses perpetrated by gangs and non-gang youngsters, the authors of this research endeavor aimed at ascertaining the types of crime perpetrated … overall youth arrests on charges of violence, drug use/possession/trade, and serious violence to a significantly greater degree than before among quasi-initiative youngsters and comparison youngsters in the initiative period. Serious violence apprehensions ought to be reduced to a far greater degree for program youngsters as compared to … in the initiative period. Serious violence apprehensions ought to be reduced to a far greater degree for program youngsters as compared to the comparison group (aged 17-18 years) – the greatest offenders of that age more prone to gang-joining – after controlling for the remaining variables. The … of apprehensions on the grounds……
Alleyne, E., & Wood, J. L. (2013). Gang-related crime: The social, psychological, and behavioral correlates. Psychology, Crime & Law, 19(7), 611-627.
FBI, (n.d.). Gangs. Retrieved from https://www.fbi.gov/investigate/violent-crime/gangs#The-Gang%20Threat on 12 June 2020
Finelli, G. A. (2019). Slash, Shoot, Kill Gang Recruitment of Children, and the Penalties Gangs Face. Family Court Review, 57(2), 243-257.
Hesketh, R. F. (2018). A critical exploration of why some individuals with similar backgrounds do or do not become involved in deviant street groups and the potential implications for their future life choices. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Chester, United Kingdom).
Hesketh, R.F. (2019). Joining gangs: living on the edge?. Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, Vol. 5 No. 4; 280-294.
Higginson, A., Benier, K., Shenderovich, Y., Bedford, L., Mazerolle, L., & Murray, J. (2018). Factors associated with youth gang membership in low?and middle?income countries: a systematic review. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 14(1), 1-128.
Howell, J. C. (2010). Gang Prevention: An Overview of Research and Programs. Juvenile Justice Bulletin. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
Klein, M.W. (1995). The American street gang: Its nature, prevalence, and control. New York: Oxford University Press.
… top school) against another to challenge the imagination and reveal hitherto unknown areas of intervention. The study data was gathered through observation. The comparison revealed that one of the stand out differences between the libraries in comparison was how they were decorated. Another stand out difference between the two libraries was the location of computers. The physical comparison reveals what is expected. That top or elite schools have libraries with more space, more books, and more digital resources. The researcher, Loh ……
Compton-Lilly, C., & Delbridge, A. (2019). What Can Parents Tell Us About Poverty and Literacy Learning? Listening to Parents Over Time. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 62(5), 531–539.
Dickerson, A., & Popli, G. K. (2016). Persistent poverty and children\\\\\\\\\\\\'s cognitive development: evidence from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society), 179(2), 535-558.
Hampden-Thompson, G., & Galindo, C. (2017). School-family relationships, school satisfaction, and the academic achievement of young people. Educational Review, 69(2), 248–265.
Thompson, K., Richardson, L. P., Newman, H., & George, K. (2019). Interaction Effects of Socioeconomic Status on Emerging Literacy and Literacy Skills among Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergarten Children: A Comparison Study. Journal of Human Services: Training, Research, and Practice, 4(1), 5.
Borre, A., Bernhard, J., Bleiker, C., & Winsler, A. (2019). Preschool Literacy Intervention for Low-Income, Ethnically Diverse Children: Effects of the Early Authors Program Through Kindergarten. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk (JESPAR), 24(2), 132–153.
Comber, B., & Kamler, B. (2004). Getting Out of Deficit: Pedagogies of reconnection. Teaching Education, 15(3), 293–310.
… focused definition of clinical concern. In such a system, clinical problems are broken into four parts, i.e., the P: patient/problem; I; intervention; C: comparison; O: outcome (Yuan et al., 2019).
PICO is a framework for creating an effective clinical research question before commencing research. PICO is. A … the four categories of clinical data: i. the population referred to by the question, ii. The intervention used in the population, iii. the comparison criteria and iv. the results of the measure. Systematic review guidelines recommend PICO is creating strategies for search. Many modern systemic reviews rely ……
Considine, J., Shaban, R. Z., Fry, M., & Curtis, K. (2017). Evidence-based emergency nursing: designing a research question and searching the literature. International emergency nursing, 32, 78-82.
Eriksen, M. B., & Frandsen, T. F. (2018). The impact of patient, intervention, comparison, outcome (PICO) as a search strategy tool on literature search quality: a systematic review. Journal of the Medical Library Association: JMLA, 106(4), 420.
Yuan, X., Xiaoli, L., Shilei, L., Qinwen, S., & Ke, L. (2019, May). Extracting PICO elements from RCT abstracts using 1-2gram analysis and multitask classification. In Proceedings of the third International Conference on Medical and Health Informatics 2019 (pp. 194-199).
Scells, H., Zuccon, G., Koopman, B., Deacon, A., Azzopardi, L., &Geva, S. (2017, November). Integrating the framing of clinical questions via PICO into the retrieval of medical literature for systematic reviews. In Proceedings of the 2017 ACM on Conference on Information and Knowledge Management (pp. 2291-2294).
Basmaci, R., Vazouras, K., Bielicki, J., Folgori, L., Hsia, Y., Zaoutis, T., &Sharland, M. (2017). Urinary tract infection antibiotic trial study design: a systematic review. Pediatrics, 140(6).
Misra, D. P., & Agarwal, V. (2018). Systematic reviews: challenges for their justification, related comprehensive searches, and implications. Journal of Korean medical science, 33(12).
Belcher, B. M., Rasmussen, K. E., Kemshaw, M. R., &Zornes, D. A. (2016). Defining and assessing research quality in a transdisciplinary context. Research Evaluation, 25(1), 1-17.
Fu, D. Y., & Hughey, J. J. (2019). Meta-Research: Releasing a preprint is associated with more attention and citations for the peer-reviewed article. Elife, 8, e52646.
...Comparison Personality theories and PTSD
Alternative Theoretical Positions and Applications
The idea of personality is broadly accepted as being fundamental in psychology, but its dynamics as well as the ways that it may be identified and assessed are questions in which psychologists have been in substantial disagreement. Millon had been focused on perpetually creating a systematic program to describe standard as well as abnormal personality functioning and also to determine various kinds of personality types and conditions according to deductive thinking. This varies with the rising inductive technique that identified proportions of personality functioning and realignment according to factor evaluation of the personality lexicon qualities. The present system consists of 13 personality designs or kinds according to groups generally observed in a number of communities to varying degrees. The primary personality designs established by Millon had been all variants from the Passive, Active along with Pleasure-Pain proportions. Over his years of……
Pincus, A. L., & Krueger, R. F. (2015). Theodore Millon\\'s contributions to conceptualizing personality disorders. Journal of personality assessment, 97(6), 537-540.
Millon, T., Millon, C. M., Meagher, S. E., Grossman, S. D., & Ramnath, R. (2004). Personality disorders in modern life. John Wiley & Sons.
Rossi, G., & Derksen, J. (2015). International adaptations of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory: Construct validity and clinical applications. Journal of personality assessment, 97(6), 572-590.
O’Connor, B. P., & Dyce, J. A. (1998). A test of models of personality disorder configuration. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 107(1), 3.
Lecic-Tosevski, D., Gavrilovic, J., Knezevic, G., & Priebe, S. (2003). Personality factors and posttraumatic stress: Associations in civilians one year after air attacks. Journal of Personality Disorders, 17, 537–549.
Strack, S., & Millon, T. (2007). Contributions to the dimensional assessment of personality disorders using Millon\\'s model and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI–III). Journal of Personality Assessment, 89(1), 56-69.
Bajraktarov, S., Gudeva-Nikovska, D., Manuševa, N., & Arsova, S. (2017). Personality Characteristics as Predictive Factors for the Occurrence of Depressive Disorder. Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, 5(1), 48–53. https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2017.022
Framingham, J. (2018). Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III). Psych Central.
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