Budget Cuts Essays (Examples)

Study Document

Higher Education Institutional Crisis And Solutions

Pages: 9 (2593 words) Sources: 10 Document Type:Term Paper Document #:97229095

...Budget cuts Introduction
Higher education continues to be a significant aspect within an economy with professions necessitating individuals with such educational attainments. However, institutions of higher education have continued to experience several challenges, including deteriorating student enrollments, increasing student debt across the United States, and also concerning student completion rates for the different educational programs. The Higher Education sector in the United States is experiencing major challenges. California State University, Los Angeles, is the leading all-inclusive public university that is situated at the heart of Los Angeles and is committed to engagement, service, and the public good. It is one of the renowned higher education institutions not only in Los Angeles but also in the state of California as a whole. The purpose of this report is to conduct extensive research to offer prospective solutions to an organizational problem being experienced at Cal State LA as a setting for higher education.



California State University Los Angeles. (2020). Strategic Plan. Retrieved from: http://www.calstatela.edu/strategicplan

Chavez, M. (2019). Cal State LA has proposed a plan to cut enrollment for incoming freshmen beginning Fall 2020. University Times. Retrieved from:  https://csulauniversitytimes.com/operation-impaction/ 

Finney, J. E. (2014). Why the finance model for public higher education is broken and must be fixed. Public Policy Initiative 2(6).

Wiley Education Services. (2020). Top Challenges Facing U.S. Higher Education. Retrieved from:  https://edservices.wiley.com/top-higher-education-challenges/ 

Unigo. (2020). California State University – Los Angeles: What do you consider the worst thing about your school? Why? Retrieved from:  https://www.unigo.com/colleges/california-state-university-los-angeles/q-and-a/what-do-you-consider-the-worst-thing-about-your-school-why-673/1 

Mitchell, B. C. (February 22, 2018). America\\\\\\\\\\\\'s colleges and universities have a serious revenue problem. Hechinger Report. Retrieved from:  https://hechingerreport.org/opinion-americas-colleges-universities-serious-revenue-problem/ 

Hussain, S. (February 25, 2019). Cal State L.A.\\\\\\\\\\\\'s plan to raise admissions standards faces pushback from students and faculty. Los Angeles Times.  https://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-edu-cal-state-los-angeles-admissions-20190225-story.html 

Zeleza, P. T. (March 12, 2020). Money Matters: The Financial Crises Facing Universities. The Elephant. Retrieved from:  https://www.theelephant.info/ideas/2020/03/12/money-matters-the-financial-crises-facing-universities/

Study Document

Public Health Inconvenient Truth

Pages: 2 (724 words) Sources: 2 Document Type:Article Analysis Document #:86664862

… current public health sector can mostly be attributed to the recent economic crisis, which has forced the government to cut the public health budget continually. Along with budget cuts come new and deadly diseases (COVID-19, for example) that put pressure on public health care and push its administration towards failure. Finally, unprecedented ……



Johnson, T. D. (2009). Public health benefiting from private-sector partnerships: Health departments reaping results. The Nation\\\\\\\\\\\\'s Health.

Majestic, E. (2009). Public health\\\\\\\\\\\\'s inconvenient truth: the need to create partnerships with the business sector. Preventing chronic disease, 6(2), A39.

Study Document

Higher Education Labor Rights Faculty Tenure

Pages: 5 (1587 words) Sources: 6 Document Type:Essay Document #:61972797

… the tenured faculty. One of those extenuating circumstances would be financial exigency: an unavoidable and unfortunate situation in which the institution experiences severe budget shortfalls and must completely reconsider reallocating resources in order to remain viable at all. A similar extenuating circumstance that may legally permit the ……



Alleman, N.F. & Haviland, D. (2017). “I expect to be engaged as an equal”: collegiality expectations of full-time, non-tenure-track faculty members. High Educ (2017) 74: 527.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-016-0062-4 

American Association of University Professors (AAUP 2019). Tenure. Retrieved from:  https://www.aaup.org/issues/tenure 

Curnalia, R. M. L., & Mermer, D. (2018). Renewing our commitment to tenure, academic freedom, and shared governance to navigate challenges in higher education. Review of Communication, 18(2), 129–139.doi:10.1080/15358593.2018.1438645

Eastman, N. J., & Boyles, D. (2015). In defense of academic freedom and faculty governance: John Dewey, the 100th anniversary of the AAUP, and  the Threat of Corporatization

Mitchell, M., Palacios, V. & Leachman, M. (2015). States are still funding higher education below pre-recession levels. Journal of Collective Bargaining in the Academy, April 2015, Article 71. Retrieved from:  https://thekeep.eiu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1524&context=jcba 

Study Document

Agency Theory And The Limitations Of Representative Government

Pages: 11 (3159 words) Sources: 5 Document Type:Essay Document #:26643855

The Political Nature of the Federal budget Process
The federal budget process is overseen by US Congressmen, who are fundamentally immersed in the political nature of government. As Elwood (2008) notes, members of Congress … obtaining the votes necessary for reelection; and 3) by obtaining expert advice on topics that are of personal importance to them. The federal budget process is particularly impactful on the first two and vice versa. For example, “the ability to funnel money into a congressional district or … for a legislator to remain in office” (Elwood, 2008, p. 3). This ability creates a conflict of interest among the politicians overseeing the budget process. On the one hand they are tasked with producing a budget resolution and allocating funds based on the duty to serve the collective good; on the other hand they have a vested self-interest in … in ways that will benefit them,……



Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Agency theory: An assessment and review. Academy of management review, 14(1), 57-74.

Elwood, T. W. (2008). Politics of the US Federal Budget Process. International quarterly of community health education, 28(1), 3-12.

Jennings, M. (2008). Business Ethics: Case Studies and Selected Readings. Cengage.

Machold, S., Ahmed, P.K., & Farquhar, S.S. (2007). Corporate Governance and Ethics: A Feminist Perspective. Journal of Business Ethics (2008) 81:665-678.

ProActive Solutions. (2020). Agency theory. Retrieved from http://knowledgegrab.com/learners-zone/study-support/performance-management-review/framework-introduction-to-hrm/agency-theory/

Study Document

The Rising Cost Of Public Education In United States

Pages: 7 (2143 words) Sources: 13 Document Type:Essay Document #:91796938

… federal funding for education and hiring of part-time faculty.
Facts Regarding the Problem
In line with a 2019 report from the Centre on budget and Policy Priorities (CBPP), the tuition has increased by 37 percent, and the net costs have even risen further by 24 percent (Hess … To minimize their negative impacts, educational institutes have to further increase their tuition fees. Another reason for increment in tuition costs is the cuts in state funding to the public educational institutes. According to the GI bill of rights, in 1944, the federal government tried to enroll … require full salaries and that too in large amounts. It is called contingent faculty and helps in cutting down the costs of educational budget of the institutes since the part-time faculty do not have a fixed tenure. The salary amounts that the public institutes have to pay ……


Works Cited

Amour, Madeline. “Report: living expenses, not tuition, are the problem.” Inside Higher Ed, 13 May 2020,  https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2020/05/13/living-expenses-are-larger-  barrier-students-tuition-report-finds. Accessed 30 Jul. 2020.

Cude, Katherine. The Rising Cost Of Tuition At Four Year Public Universities: A Comparison Of The Explanations Offered By The Academic Literature And University Decision Makers. 2016. University of Vermont, Undergraduate theses. Scholar Works, https://scholarworks.uvm.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1027&context=castheses

Davidson, Adam. “Is College Tuition Really Too High?” The New York Times Magazine, 8 Sep. 2015,  https://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/13/magazine/is-college-tuition-too-high.html . Accessed 30 Jul. 2020.

Desrochers, Donna, and Kirshstein, Rita. Labor Intensive or Labor Expensive? 2014. American Institutes for Research, Delta Cost Project. Lumina Foundation, https://www.luminafoundation.org/files/resources/deltacostair-labor-expensive-higher- education-staffing-brief-feb2014.pdf

Dickler, Jessica. “Why College Tuition Keeps Rising.” CNBC, 24 Oct. 2019, https://www.cnbc.com/2019/10/24/why-college-tuition-keeps-rising.html, Accessed 30 Jul. 2020.

Hemelt, Steven, and Marcotte, Dave. Rising Tuition And Enrollment In Public Higher Education. 2008. IZA, Discussion Paper. IZA,  http://ftp.iza.org/dp3827.pdf 

Hemelt, Steven, and Marcotte, Dave. “The Impact of Tuition Increases on Enrollment at Public Colleges and Universities.” Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, vol. 33, no. 4, Dec. 2011, pp. 435-457.

Hess, Abigail. “The Cost of College Increased by More Than 25% In the Last 10 Years- Here’s Why.” CNBC, 13 Dec. 2019, https://www.cnbc.com/2019/12/13/cost-of-college- increased-by-more-than-25percent-in-the-last-10-years.html. Accessed 30 Jul. 2020.

Study Document

Purchasing A Windows Computer

Pages: 4 (1166 words) Sources: 3 Document Type:Research Paper Document #:73501520

… am familiar with both Apple and Windows operating systems. I would have a preference for a touch screen laptop if available within my budget, which is $1500 for the computer and $500 for the software. This paper will compare three advertisements for computers based on specs and ……



Apple - MacBook Pro. (2019). Retrieved from https://www.bestbuy.com/site/apple-macbook-pro-13-display-with-touch-bar-intel-core-i5-8gb-memory-128gb-ssd-latest-model-space-gray/5998700.p?skuId=5998700

Microsoft Surface Laptop. (2019). Retrieved from https://www.amazon.com/Microsoft-Surface-Laptop-Touch-Screen-Alcantara/dp/B07YNK3R68/ref=sr_1_8?fst=as%3Aoff&qid=1578208759&refinements=p_36%3A2421891011&rnid=2421885011&s=pc&sr=1-8&th=1

XPS 15 2-in-1 Laptop. (2019). Retrieved from https://www.dell.com/en-us/shop/2-in-1-laptops/xps-15-2-in-1-laptop/spd/xps-15-9575-2-in-1-laptop/fncwlf405sv2

Study Document

Purchasing And Supply Management

Pages: 9 (2780 words) Sources: 8 Document Type:Essay Document #:73672529

… function relates to selecting a qualified supplier, 2) selecting the best strategies for negotiating prices, 3) creating a project supply, service and material budget for detailed requirements, 4) discussing the benefits and costs of outsourcing, and 5) evaluating various organizations that are benchmarks in purchasing and supply … for more than one might expect to get. Starting high gives you room to walk down.
Creating a Project Supply, Service and Material budget from Detailed Requirements
The first step in this process is to identify the needs—i.e., the requirements for supply, service and materials. This tells ……



BDC. (2019). 6 ways the purchasing department can improve your business. Retrieved from  https://www.bdc.ca/en/articles-tools/operations/purchasing/pages/purchasing-department-objectives.aspx 

Benton, W. C. (2013). Supply chain focused manufacturing planning and control. Nelson Education.

Burt, D. N. (2010). Supply Management, 8th Edition. Devry.

Harland, C., Brenchley, R., & Walker, H. (2003). Risk in supply networks. Journal of Purchasing and Supply management, 9(2), 51-62. Retrieved from  http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi= 

Holmlund, M. & Strandvik, T. (1999) Perception configuration in business relationship, Management Decision, 37(9), 686-696

MacNeil/Lehrer Productions (Producer). (1999). Your computer, your way: Dell and thedirect sales model [Video file]. Retrieved from https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login

Monczka, R. & Handfield, R. (2016). Purchasing and supply chain management. Boston, MA: Cengage.

NC State University. (2003). Negotiating for success. Retrieved from  https://scm.ncsu.edu/scm-articles/article/negotiating-for-success

Study Document

Public Policy Of Agriculture Farm Bill 2018

Pages: 2 (712 words) Sources: 5 Document Type:Essay Document #:94429716

… heavily supports the wealthy farmers/land owners making it very hard for the small scale farmer to survive which such harsh policies like price cuts and benefits that the mega farm gets due to the subsidies which rule out the small scale farmer from the picture based on … farm gets due to the subsidies which rule out the small scale farmer from the picture based on competitiveness. Also, there has been budget deficit of $1.09 trillion (Amadeo, 2019) caused due to certain factors, a lot of programs and policies have been under funded like Medicare … 2019) caused due to certain factors, a lot of programs and policies have been under funded like Medicare (Us, 2019) which required the budget allocation rather than allocating the tax money on farmers, because of which only rich are getting richer. There could have been other policies ……



Aid, F. (2018, December). What’s in the 2018 Farm Bill? The Good, The Bad and The Offal…. Farm Aid. Retrieved from  https://www.farmaid.org/issues/farm-policy/whats-in-the-2018-farm-bill-the-good-the-bad-and-the-offal/ 

Amadeo, K. (2019, November 24). Current US Federal Budget Deficit. The Balance.

Coalition, N. S. (2019). WHAT IS THE FARM BILL? National Sustainable Agricultural Coalition. Retrieved from  https://sustainableagriculture.net/our-work/campaigns/fbcampaign/what-is-the-farm-bill/ 

Queck-Matzie, T. (2018, December 12). GRASSLEY SEES FARM BILL PROS AND CONS. Successful Farming. Retrieved from  https://www.agriculture.com/news/business/grassley-sees-farm-bill-pros-and-cons 

Us, I. U. (2019, November 12). Breaking down the US Federal Budget for the Fiscal Year 2019. It\\\\\\\\\\\\'s Up To Us.

Study Document

Virtual Learning Solutions For English As Second Language Students

Pages: 11 (3230 words) Sources: 10 Document Type:Research Paper Document #:70086670

… to afford all these tools, so schools may need to be the ones to provide them. Schools should receive funding from the federal budget, and the COVID-19 era has literally reshaped the way teachers and students think about learning. The trend towards using digital technology to enhance ……



Alvarez-Marinelli, H., Blanco, M., Lara-Alecio, R., Irby, B. J., Tong, F., Stanley, K., & Fan, Y. (2016). Computer assisted English language learning in Costa Rican elementary schools: an experimental study. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 29(1), 103-126.

Beetham, H., & Sharpe, R. (Eds.). (2013). Rethinking pedagogy for a digital age: Designing for 21st century learning. NY: Routledge.

Cassady, J. C., Smith, L. L., & Thomas, C. L. (2017). Supporting emergent literacy for English language learners with computer?assisted instruction. Journal of Research in Reading.

Jiang, H., Tang, M., Peng, X., & Liu, X. (2018). Learning design and technology through social networks for high school students in China. International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 28(1), 189-206.

Kahai, S. S., Carroll, E., & Jestice, R. (2007). Team collaboration in virtual worlds. ACM SIGMIS Database: the DATABASE for Advances in Information Systems, 38(4), 61-68.

Kasapo?lu-Akyol, P. (2010). Using educational technology tools to improve language and communication skills of ESL students. Novitas-Royal, 4(2).

Meskill, G., & Mossop, J. (2003). Technologies use with learners of ESL in New Your State: Preliminary report. Retrieved from  https://www.albany.edu/lap/Papers/technology%20use.htm 

Park, J. Y. (2011). Design education online: Learning delivery and evaluation. International Journal of Art & Design Education, 30(2), 176-187.

Study Document

Enterprise Risk Management In Wells Fargo During The Pandemic

Pages: 15 (4587 words) Sources: 15 Document Type:Essay Document #:32848070

… sheet” (Sartor & Dall, 2020). It looks at five components of enterprise risk: 1) unrestricted liquidity, 2) capital structure, 3) operations, 4) capital budget risks, and 5) defined benefit plans. Goldman Sachs is an international competitor of Wells Fargo and tends to succeed more than it its ……



Beasley, M. (2020). How to Leverage ERM Principles to Better Respond to COVID-19-Related Risks. ERM Professional Insights.

Derysh, I. (2020). Watchdog questions why Wells Fargo reported giving only one large PPP loan to a Black-owned business. Retrieved from  https://www.salon.com/2020/07/22/watchdog-questions-why-wells-fargo-reported-giving-only-one-large-ppp-loan-to-a-black-owned-business/ 

English, C. (2020). Wells Fargo Forced to Cut Its Dividend After Fed Stress Test. Here’s What Other Banks Did. Retrieved from  https://www.barrons.com/articles/wells-fargo-forced-to-cut-its-dividend-after-fed-stress-test-51593467664 

Hall, J. (2007). Internal Auditing and ERM: Fitting in and Adding Value. Retrieved from  https://global.theiia.org/about/about-the-iia/Public  Documents/Sawyer_Award_2007.pdf

Kaplan, R. & Mikes, A. (2012). Managing risks: A new framework. Harvard Business Review, 3.

Lewis, M. (2010). The Big Short. NY: W. W. Norton.

Lundqvist, S. (2014). Abandoning Silos for Integration: Implementing Enterprise Risk Management and Risk Governance. Lund University.

Morgenson, G. (2020). More Wells Fargo customers say the bank decided to pause their mortgage payments without asking. Retrieved from  https://www.nbcnews.com/business/personal-finance/more-wells-fargo-customers-say-bank-decided-pause-their-mortgage-n1234610

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