… other groups, this phrase does not mean much. This is because they face discrimination at sentencing and other stages of the criminal justice system. For example, the poor in the United States in America are more likely to be arrested, more likely to get low-quality legal representation, … likely to get maximum sentences than the rich. The paper’s goal is to investigate sentencing discrimination and disparities in the American criminal justice system (Spohn, 2008).
Sentencing Disparities and Discrimination
Despite the increased focus on discrimination and leadership changes at the federal justice department, disparities and discrimination … focus on discrimination and leadership changes at the federal justice department, disparities and discrimination persist at different levels of the American criminal justice system. This, in no way, means that the American criminal justice system is set up to discriminate against certain populations in the United States intentionally. What it means is that……
Daly, K., & Tonry, M. (1997). Gender, Race, and Sentencing. Crime and Justice, 22, 201-252. Retrieved May 26, 2020, from www.jstor.org/stable/1147574
Farrell, A., Ward, G., & Rousseau, D. (2010). Intersections of gender and race in federal sentencing: examining court contexts and the effects of representative court authorities. Journal of Gender, Race, and Justice, 1, 85.
Hessick, C. B. (2010). Race and gender as explicit sentencing factors. Journal of Gender, Race, and Justice, 1, 127.
Mauer, M. (2010). Justice for all challenging racial disparities in the criminal justice system. Hum. Rts., 37, 14.
Smith, D. (2006). Narrowing Racial Disparities in Sentencing through a System of Mandatory Downward Departures. The Modern American, Summer 2006, 32–37.
Spohn, C. (2008). How do judges decide?: the search for fairness and justice in punishment. Sage Publications.
Yang, C. S. (2015). Free at last? Judicial discretion and racial disparities in federal sentencing. The Journal of Legal Studies, 44(1), 75-111.
IDEA LAW IEP Special Education
Since the majority of parents of disabled students struggle with navigating special education system, advocacy training provides a means of helping parents secure the right educational service for their disabled child. In this paper, parents' need for … life, including employment. Parents form the main safeguard for all special needs children; consequently, the former are written into almost all special education system facets (Thatcher 4).
Confidence in and a grasp of special education procedures and legislation (cultural capital) doesn't form the sole factor impacting parental ……
Arnini, Sarah, \\\\\\"Parents as Partners: An Analysis of the Barriers to Parental Involvement in Special Education\\\\\\" (2007). Social Work Theses. 12. http://digitalcommons.providence.edu/socialwrk_students/12
Burke, Meghan M. \\\\\\"Improving parental involvement: Training special education advocates.\\\\\\" Journal of Disability Policy Studies 23.4 (2013): 225-234. DOI: 10.1177/1044207311424910
Dameh, Bilal A., \\\\\\"The Impact of Parent Involvement Practices in Special Education Programs\\\\\\" (2015). Culminating Projects in Education Administration and Leadership. 11. https://repository.stcloudstate.edu/edad_etds/11
Hornby, Garry, and Rayleen Lafaele. \\\\\\"Barriers to parental involvement in education: An explanatory model.\\\\\\" Educational review 63.1 (2011): 37-52.
Rehm, Roberta S et al. \\\\\\"Parental advocacy styles for special education students during the transition to adulthood.\\\\\\" Qualitative health research vol. 23,10 (2013): 1377-87. DOI:10.1177/1049732313505915
Sapungan, Gina Madrigal, and Ronel Mondragon Sapungan. \\\\\\"Parental involvement in child\\\\\\'s education: Importance, barriers, and benefits.\\\\\\" Asian Journal of Management Sciences & Education 3.2 (2014): 23-43.
Statewide Parent Advocacy Network. \\\\\\"Questions and Answers about IDEA: Parent Participation.\\\\\\" Center for Parent Information and Resources, 3 Jan. 2019, www.parentcenterhub.org/qa2/.
Thatcher, Steven Brown, \\\\\\"Increasing Parental Involvement of Special Education Students: The Creation of Smartphone-Friendly, Web-Based Legal and Procedural Resources\\\\\\" (2012). All Graduate Plan B and other Reports. 147. https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/gradreports/147
Professional leadership Journal – Value system
The art and science of leading people in an effective manner is an increasingly challenging process though it is a great opportunity and … light of the insights obtained from this course, an individual’s personal values play an important role in leadership.
Values are defined as enduring belief that an individual possess that in turn influences his/her code of conduct. Value system not only shape an individual code of conduct but also affects his/her worldview. Therefore, personal values may affect an individual’s leadership in the … health through shaping his/her ideologies, viewpoints, and actions. Leadership styles and approaches in the field of public health are influenced by one’s value system. By influencing one’s viewpoints, values determine the approaches undertaken by a leader in the public health sector toward promoting the health and wellbeing … determine the approaches undertaken by a leader in the public……
Nahavandi, A. (2014). The art and science of leadership (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
… challenges can be addressed.
How Health Care Advocacy Agents Address Health Outcomes
The role and purpose of advocacy in the health care delivery system is to help to better ensure that the patient receives the type of quality care he or she needs no matter where he … of quality care he or she needs no matter where he is in the world. Advocates are there to promote quality care, improve system of care, and foster and facilitate the application of preventive care. Without advocates, patients and populations will have no one to support them, … is about ensuring that every patient is served justly and has his or her needs met in accordance with the cultural views and belief that the patient has (Ahmadinejad, Abbaszadeh & Davoodvand, 2016).
Two ways that health care advocacy agents can address health outcomes at the … practice at…[break]…primary means of interacting……
Ahmadinejad, F., Abbaszadeh, A., & Davoodvand, S. (2016). Patient advocacy from the clinical nurses\\\\' viewpoint: a qualitative study. Journal of medical ethics and history of medicine, 9(5).
Benatar, S. R. (2013). Global Health and Justice: R e?examining our Values. Bioethics, 27(6), 297-304.
Earnest, M. A., Wong, S. L., & Federico, S. G. (2010). Perspective: physician advocacy: what is it and how do we do it?. Academic medicine, 85(1), 63-67.
World Health Organization (WHO). (2015). Global Health Ethics Key issues Global Network of WHO Collaborating Centres for Bioethics. Retrieved from: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/164576/9789240694033_eng.pdf;jsessionid=BF56A5C93A3B735876DBBF060A0652FC?sequence=1
World Health Organization. (2016). Online public hearing to help inform the scope of the forthcoming WHO guidelines on health policy and system support to optimize community based health worker programs. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/hrh/news/2016/pico_form/en/
… dissonance do to a person, and what can they do the reduce it?
Cognitive dissonance being a state of confliction between a person’s belief and outward actions or expressions results in varying degrees of discomfort and uneasiness, depending on the degree of conflict within the person (Van … cognitive consistency” (Van Kampen, 2019. pp. 1-2). Dissonance reduction is usually achieved through a change in behavior or attitude, especially towards the existing belief system, a change in the existing belief system, or a justification of current behavior/attitude in line with the existing belief system (Izuma & Murayama, 2019). As prescribed by the principle of cognitive consistency, the human mind continuously tries to harmonize itself by blocking-out or … principle of cognitive consistency, the human mind continuously tries to harmonize itself by blocking-out or denying conflicting thoughts/data that contradicts an already adopted/existing belief system (Northrup, 2018).
A. Why did……
Cherry, K. (2020). The Incentive Theory of Motivation. Retrieved from: https://www.verywellmind.com/the-incentive-theory-of-motivation-2795382
Festinger, L., & Carlsmith, J. M. (1959). Thoughts out of tune. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58, 203-210.
Izuma, K., & Murayama, K. (2019). The neural basis of cognitive dissonance. In E. Harmon-Jones (Ed.), Cognitive dissonance: Reexamining a pivotal theory in psychology (p. 227–245). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000135-011
Legg, T. (2019). Cognitive dissonance: What to know. Retrieved from: https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/326738#overview
McLeod, S. (2018). Cognitive dissonance. Retrieved from https://www.simplypsychology.org/cognitive-dissonance.html
Northrup, C. (2018). 4 ways to reduce cognitive dissonance. Retrieved from: https://www.drnorthrup.com/4-ways-to-reduce-cognitive-dissonance/
Silverman, K., Jarvis, B. P., Jessel, J., & Lopez, A. A. (2016). Incentives and motivation. Translational Issues in Psychological Science, 2(2), 97–100. DOI:10.1037/tps0000073 Retrieved from: https://sci-hub.tw/10.1037/tps0000073
Van Kampen, H. S. (2019). The principle of consistency and the cause and function of behaviour. Behavioural processes, 159, 42-54. Retrieved from: https://scihub.tw/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2018.12.013
… to adapt themselves to it and conform to the order that it itself represents?
Naturalism will allow one to come to have moral belief, but it does not lead one to moral knowledge.[footnoteRef:6] In other words, the naturalist or atheist may have moral belief—but they are not justified by anything other than the individual’s own subjective opinion. If faith (belief) rests upon reason, where is the reason for the naturalist’s belief in morality? The naturalist may say that the reason is in the simple fact that one can discern the goodness of morality, which … societies of today: individuals and groups with their own senses of morality and the moral order, each defining morality according to his own belief. What justifies those belief? Simply the individual’s or group’s collective will. The will of the person or the people judges this or that action, behavior, perspective or … Simply the……
Baggett, David and Jerry Walls. God and Cosmos. Oxford University Press, 2016.
Baggett, David and Jerry Walls. Good God: The Theistic Foundations of Morality. Oxford University Press, 2011.
Evans, Stephen. God and Moral Obligation. Oxford University Press, 2013.
… each can be judiciously used in context.
In a dissertation presented to Liberty University, Norton (2013) uses phenomenological approaches to study the self-efficacy belief of teachers who persist in their profession. In “Marshaling Resources,” Yalof (2014) uses grounded theory to explore peer support system used among students in online learning environments. A comparison of these two studies can be helpful for illustrating the differences between grounded theory … differences between grounded theory and phenomenology in education research.
Phenomenology: Norton (2013)
Purpose of the Study
In “A Phenomenological Investigation into the Self-Efficacy belief of Teachers Who Have Persisted in the Teaching Profession,” Norton (2013) clearly states the purpose of the research as “to examine the perceptions … as “to examine the perceptions and characteristics” of teachers ‘in order to explain the phenomenon of teacher self-efficacy,” (p. 19). By investigating self-efficacy belief through interactions with teachers, the researcher also aims to……
Baker, C., Wuest, J., & Stern, P. N. (1992). Method slurring: the grounded theory/phenomenology example. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 17(11), 1355–1360.doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.1992.tb01859.x
Creswell, J. W. (2013). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. eBook.
Norton, S.M. (2013). A phenomenological investigation into the self-efficacy beliefs of teachers who have presisted in the teaching profession. Liberty University Dissertation.
Starks, H., & Brown Trinidad, S. (2007). Choose Your Method: A Comparison of Phenomenology, Discourse Analysis, and Grounded Theory. Qualitative Health Research, 17(10), 1372–1380.doi:10.1177/1049732307307031
Suddaby, R. (2006). From the Editors: What Grounded Theory is Not. Academy of Management Journal, 49(4), 633–642.doi:10.5465/amj.2006.22083020
Wimpenny, P. & Gass, J. (2001). Interviewing in phenomenology and grounded theory: is there a difference? Journal of Advanced Nursing 31(6): 1485-1492.
Yalof, B. (2014). Marshaling resources. The Grounded Theory Review 13(1).
… that organizations can have a worldview. Even in a diverse organization, one in which individual employees may also have their own values or belief system, the organization functions as a unit and therefore operates within a particular worldview. That worldview is likely to be defined at least in … part in terms of the cultural and historical zeitgeist, but it might also be a subversive or disruptive organization that challenges prevailing norms, belief, and traditions. In The Universe Next Door, Sire (2009) describes worldview as a frame of reference that includes a belief system, a system of values, and a “spiritual orientation,” (p. 20). An organization can avoid overt discussions of its worldview, but ultimately the organization’s behaviors, and ……
Ahmed, A. (2019). Importance of mission vision in organizational strategy. The Chronicle. Retrieved from: https://smallbusiness.chron.com/importance-mission-vision-organizational-strategy-16000.html
Daft, R.L. (2013). Organizational theory and design. Boston: Cengage.
Metcalf, T. (n.d.). Contingency theory of organization. The Chronicle. Retrieved from: https://smallbusiness.chron.com/contingency-theory-organization-73865.html
Morgan, G. (2006). Images of organization. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Sire, J.W. (2009). The universe next door. Intervarsity.
Suhomlinova, O. & Currie, G. (2016). Organizational contingencies. The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781405165518.wbeoso019.pub2
Karl Marx and Critical Sociology
According to Marx, the development of the modern society is tied to capitalism’s rise as a universal financial system. During the mid-1800s, when industrialization was growing, Marx noticed that labor settings became increasingly exploitative. The huge steel producers were especially cruel, and … which culture together with other social organizations rest, creating the superstructure. According to Marx, the base determines how a society’s law, culture, political system, family form, and conflicts will be.
Figure 1. For Marx, each of the elements of the structure of a society depend on the … cost with regard to collective and individual suffering. An aspect of such suffering include dehumanization and alienation. For Weber, capitalism ruined securities of belief and interfered with the natural paces of pre-modern production means as well as consumption in the customary household. Rationalization ruined the control of … in the customary household. Rationalization……
Gerth, H. H., and C. Wright Mills. \\\\\\\\\\\\"Politics as a Vocation.\\\\\\\\\\\\" From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology (1946): 77-128.
Little, William. “Chapter 4. Society and Modern Life.” Introduction to Sociology – 2nd Canadian Edition. (n.d.). Web.
Lumen Learning. “Theoretical Perspectives on Society.” Society and Social Interaction. (n.d.). Web.
Marx, Karl, and Friedrich Engels. \\\\\\\\\\\\"The Communist Manifesto.\\\\\\\\\\\\" Selected Works bu Karl Marx and Frederick Engels. Neu York: International Publishers 1363 (1848). 108-127.
Marx, Karl. \\\\\\\\\\\\"Economic and philosophical manuscripts.\\\\\\\\\\\\" Early writings 333 (1844) 75–112.
Marx, Karl. Grundrisse: Foundations of the critique of political economy. Penguin UK, 2005. 82-111.
Steiner, Pierre, and John Stewart. \\\\\\\\\\\\"From autonomy to heteronomy (and back): The enaction of social life.\\\\\\\\\\\\" Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 8.4 (2009): 527.
Weber, Max. The protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism. New Introduction and Translation by Stephen Kalberg. ROXBURY PUBLISHING COMPANY, 2001. 13-37
… terms of courtship because it matches people based on how well they are likely to get along given they share the same background, belief, class, and so on. It is a simple affair and one…[break]…issues could also be addressed.
I find all these customs useful and appealing ……
Kolker, Claudia. The Immigrant Advantage. Free Press, 2011.
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