Pages:75 (22066 words)
Document Type:Research Proposal
Of these elements, they found anxiety sensitivity to be directly linked to lower levels of educational advancement. Anxiety sensitivity mainly comprises symptoms of anxiety leading to fear due to a certain belief that anxiety has dangerous somatic, psychological, or social penalties. In one study scholars found that the basic forms of fears were the playing field for a broad spectrum of fear-stimuli and they found that these basic forms of fear led to heightened levels of low educational advancement amongst teenage mothers (Singh and Darroch, 2000).
A group of researchers found facts that verified the philosophy that the dread of feeling anxious was more powerful then other fears. Nevertheless, they also stated that these basic fears were not the basis for all of the inconsistencies that were found in the ordinary fears and quality/character anxiety. This basically denoted that there were other unenthusiastic life incidents that could contribute to the aftermath of these basic fears. Hence, the stats that analyze the association between the basic fears and unenthusiastic life incidents could be utilized to analyze and foresee the occurrence as well as the extent of ordinary fears. Other elements that may influence fear are age, gender, and SES among others. Singh and Darroch (2000) found age and gender to be strong indicators of lower educational advancement amongst teenage mothers (Singh and Darroch, 2000).
In one study carried out on the link between anxiety and fear researchers studied children between the ages of 8 and 16. They concluded that the pattern of anxiety and fear was the same as found in the teenage mothers. This basically meant that higher anxiety levels led to higher fear levels and lower educational advancement, with the opposite being true as well (Singh and Darroch, 2000).
Fear, in terms of panic attacks, amongst pregnant and teenage mothers has only in the past decade or so caught the attention of the researchers. Some researchers, however, had an opposing view of panic attack patterns. These studies showed that most panic attacks began at the age of adolescence, not before, and were more common for the females and even more common for teenage mothers. These females are highly prone to lower levels of educational advancements (Singh and Darroch, 2000).
There have many studies done on the American teenage mothers and the incidence of the impulsive panic attacks amongst them. Most of the results showed that nearly 60% of the teenage mothers had panic attacks and they were more common amongst females then the males. Other researches also showed statistics that confirmed that teenage mothers suffered from higher levels of panic attacks and hence they were more likely to have increased degrees of anxiety and lower educational advancement (Singh and Darroch, 2000).
The impact of self-developed coping-strategies on teenage mother educational advancement
Studies have found that the phase of turning from an adolescent to a teenage parent is the phase where the identity crises occur for most children. Furthermore, it is during this transition that the teenage mother starts to deal on a larger scale with the psychosocial realities and starts to develop their tackling or coping capabilities and tactics. A group of researchers found that this coping procedure or phase is very under researched and rarely comprehended. Another group of researchers in their study explained that this was because the teenage mothers had a whole structure of coping tactics and none of those tactics were used in frequency or regular consistencies. Another unknown area about the coping tactics is whether they are part of the overall characteristics or whether they have been observed before being practiced. Some of the elements that influence the coping tactics are gender, society, customs, maturity, family structure and family conditions among others. Researchers found that teenage mothers who were able to execute successful coping strategies were highly likely to experience higher levels of Educational advancement. They found the opposite to be true for those teenage mothers who failed to practice a coping strategy (Weinstock, Stuart, and Willard, 2004).
The impact of social settings on teenage mother educational advancement
According to Bronfenbrenner (1989) the social system is basically a personality or character structure (Bronfenbrenner, 1989). So when considering this system, educational advancement of teenage mothers gets influenced by biological, personal as well as social elements like the family, contemporaries, and social institutions. All these elements can influence the educational advancement directly through joint contacts and/or personal dedication of the teenage mother. Kohn (1989) found that exo-systems - external social settings -- can also at times influence the educational advancement of teenage mothers. One of the examples of exo-systems is the occupational choices of the parents, these occupational choices will structure the overall parenting approach as well as the familial norms, principles and habits, which as a result will influence the path of the teenage mother's mental growth (Kohn, 1989). The exo-system can also influence her mental growth outside of the domain of the parental attitudes. Teenage mothers can analyze the future contributions that they can make by analyzing the social structure that exists outside of their family like the gender differentiations within the social sphere. Orr and Dinur (1995) found that occupational choices made by parents and social structures surrounding the teenage mothers significantly impact their educational advancement (Dinur and Orr, 1995).
There is very little disagreement on the fact that personal growth of an individual is affected by his educational advancement. The differences arrive in how this affect is represented and what is the background behind the conclusions made. The social scientists tend to rely on the phenomena of personality (Rosenberg, 1991), self-assessment (Harter, 1983), self-respect (Wylie, 1968), self-conception (Marsh, 1990a) as well as, confidence or self-worth (Harter, 1983). There are numerous researches as well where these aforementioned concepts are calculated on a global free-of-ideals structure (e.g., Rosenberg, 1991), with the help of the specific calculative stats of spheres (e.g., Piers and Harris, 1969), and additional calculative stats of other realms (e.g., Marsh, 1990a; Harter, 1983, and Wylie, 1979).
The pattern of these studies exhibits two facts:
1. The degree of self-evaluations, i.e., the different collection of the various definitions and elements of self-concept, and
2. The structure of the self-concept philosophy, i.e., the system of associations and link between the different elements.
This stack of facts and stats gives the researcher the opportunity to analyze and form conclusions about the numerous detached and widespread influences that the social environments have on a teenage mother's educational advancement. Dinur and Orr (1995) found that the structure of the self-concept theory helps the individual to use these facts to his advantage so that he/she can cope and tackle with the situations on a general scale. If the development of an individual is dependent upon the association of the self-concept then it safe to say the self-concept of parents, or peers, or other social factors will have a strong influence on the teenage mothers' development and educational advancement (Dinur and Orr, 1995).
Harter (1983) found that the theory of self-concept varies with the ages, cultures and populations, and this variation is one of the propelling forces for many researchers to study the multifaceted nature of the self-concept (Harter, 1983; Marsh, 1990a). Dinur and Orr (1995) argued that these studies lack the social environment or changes that effect the formation of the self-concept. Also not many studies have been conducted implementing the multifaceted nature of the self-concept on the choices and communication of the teenage mother with his/her environment. The researches done thus far have concentrated on the gender preferences amongst different societies and have only exhibit the association of certain social environments with specific ideals of the self-concept philosophies (Weinstock, Stuart, and Willard, 2004).
Rosenberg and Pearlin (1978) in their study tried to classify some of the main components that make up the structure of the self-concept philosophy. They classified the opinion of significant others like family members or friends as an integral component along with all the facts that were collected from self-evaluation, recognition and acknowledgment of what is vital or important and assessments of their social relationships. They also explained that when these classifications are expanded then one can see how they are influenced by the peripheral third parties or testimonial factions within the social setup. Similarly, empirical studies of relations between social setting and self-concept variables reported discrete contingencies (Weinstock, Stuart, and Willard, 2004).
In relation to the self-concept phenomenon, numerous researches have also carried out studies with the focus being on the different gender preferences in different social environments; and interestingly, all of the researches done, on the two factors, show unforeseen links or happenings in their association. A large number of the studies done in the western societies have shown that the teenage mothers are the ones that experience higher levels of low educational advancement then teenage fathers and they also explain how this is more common within specific…
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Abortion trends varied widely by state as well. "Teenage abortion rates were highest in New York (41 per 1,000), New Jersey, Nevada, Delaware and Connecticut. By contrast, teenagers in South Dakota (6 per 1,000), Utah, Kentucky, Nebraska and North Dakota all had abortion rates of eight or fewer per 1,000 women aged 15 -- 19. More than half of teenage pregnancies ended in abortion in New Jersey, New York and
This large number was selected to ensure that the power of statistical tests used in the study is of sufficient power to draw valid conclusions. It is expected that given the sensitive nature of the subject, there will be large numbers of selected participants who will decide not to participate, will drop out, or whose parents will not sign the consent form. All participants selected will be taken from
The result of this, as seen above, is that these mothers lack job skills, making it difficult not only to find employment that could adequately support themselves and their children, but also to retain these jobs once they find them. The result is that about 64% of children born under such conditions live in poverty, compared to 7% of children born to married women older than 20 and who
Teenage Pregnancy The disadvantages of teen pregnancy Teen pregnancy is increasing worldwide and the accompanying negative effects have dire implications for society. Countries have engaged in aggressive campaigns to arrest and limit the number of teens becoming pregnant. There has been limited success from the approaches utilized because of the multiple variables that influence a teenage to engage in sexual behavior. A critical part of the problem is that most teens are
Moreover, an 'abstinence-only' education program is sometimes perceived by teenagers as providing one-sided and medically inaccurate information. (Studies by Kirby, 1997 and Huberman, quoted in "Reducing Teenage Pregnancy" 2006) shift in attitudes towards teenage sexuality must occur in the U.S. To facilitate the development of appropriate policies and programs to reduce teenage pregnancy. Presently, sexual activity, rather than the pregnancies that can result from it, is seen as the
Typically, class does have an effect upon teen pregnency for a variety of reasons. The urban poor tend to have less access to some of the opportunities and activities of middle and upper class girls; they are often alone longer during the day because their mother or grandmother is working; they often do not have access to the same amount of information about birth control and/or abstinance that other children;