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Food Increasingly Popular a Leisure Activity. Background Essay

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Topic:Cooking

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food increasingly popular a leisure activity. Background Information: Food people solely 'food fuel'. Food,, aspects a leisure activity: shopping [ farmer's markets], eating, cooking, reading, TV viewing, blogging .

Food as a Leisure Activity

Conditions in the contemporary society have made it possible for people to change their perspective regarding some concepts and things as simple as food have come to represent a leisure activity. Individuals are no longer interested in eating with the purpose to satisfy this need, as many people presently regard cooking and eating as an art. Moreover, one needs to focus expansively on these concepts in order to harvest all the benefits associated with making and eating food. Food has reached a whole new level in first-world countries, considering that the financial condition that people in these countries have virtually enabled them to see food as being more than just a necessity. Numerous individuals are actively engaged in producing, buying, and selling food-related ideas with the purpose of exploiting this domain.

In spite of the fact that food is generally perceived as a means of sustenance, the social order has gradually turned its attention toward the leisure aspect of this particular concept. This influenced many individuals in perceiving it as being more than a necessity, as it came to be a way of life. People are practically making a statement through the food that they eat or cook. The food industry has presently reached a point that makes it one of the most important fields in society, especially considering the growing number of nutritionists that are apparently concerned about what the masses eat.

In spite of the fact that more and more individuals start to express interest in eating food that provides them with as many benefits as possible, "fast food, frozen food, restaurant food or simply skipping meals has replaced cooking" (Nazareth 2). People consider that they are constantly busy and perceive cooking as a leisure activity that they can only perform when they have a lot of free time. The idea of 'Super Suppers' has recently emerged as a solution to this issue, as a chain of stores spread across the world are intended to provide people with resources that they can use with the purpose of cooking food faster than they would normally do it. One of the most disturbing truths regarding prosperous communities is the fact that they have little to no time to spare for cooking, especially considering that "about half of food dollars spent in the United States are for food eaten outside the home: the restaurant industry is the biggest private-sector employer in the country" (Nazareth 21).

Food is no longer a product that needs to be consumed in large amounts in order to make people happy, as quality is more important than quantity today and as the masses have turned their attention toward the relaxation aspect of the concept. Food has been introduced to a series of domains and is an important factor in numerous groups, considering that people are currently identifying with particular types of food. "As the realm of social order (and disorder) becomes ever more constituted by and through processes that cross political and cultural boundaries, traverse staggering physical (and mental) distances, undermine established ways of doing things and create new forms of thought and practice" (Inglis & Gimlin 3), the food industry is severely affected and a lot of food-related ideas affect the process of globalization and the globalized world.

Most people regard globalization as a process that primarily affects economies. However, these respective individuals are inclined to ignore the fact that this progression is actually much more complex and that in order to determine the exact domains that are most affected by it they need to concentrate on understanding it completely. People are no longer interested in sustaining themselves by using traditional means and they focus on borrowing tips and tricks from a series of cultures that they interact with in an attempt to create the most effective living environment that they could possibly think of. This influences them in adopting enthusiastic attitudes in regard to foods that are reputed for the beneficial effects that they have on bodies and minds (Inglis & Gimlin 7).

Although it is difficult to determine exactly when the globalization of food started, it is only safe to assume that it began to be appreciated world-wide during the last decades of the twentieth century. In spite of the fact that food has travelled across the world for centuries, it is not until the recent decades that it actually came to be recognized for its potential to assist intercultural communication. Food has become very diverse and is presently available in most areas of the world in large quantities, even with the fact that there are also individuals who are unable to access it. Developing countries are especially at risk when considering the globalization of food. "Competition for a market share of food purchases tends to intensify with entry into the system of powerful new players such as large multinational fast food and supermarket chains" (Globalization of food systems in developing countries: impact on food security and nutrition 1). Traditional food markets are losing significant ground in the face of these agents and people start to have lesser access to established food sources. While one might perceive this as being detrimental for people living in these countries, matters are not necessarily critical. Corporate food industries bring along important improvements in food quality and are even likely to sell products much cheaper in comparison to domestic food producers. Consumers thus come to be more sophisticated and express less interest in products that they perceive as being less qualitative when compared to the standards brought forward by large food companies.

While people are generally more likely to experience positive changes as a result of having access to a wider and more qualitative range of foods, problems also occur as some have trouble understanding what products are safer for them to consume. This is especially disturbing, considering that "the lower socio-economic population groups drift towards poor-quality, energy dense but cheap and affordable foods" (Globalization of food systems in developing countries: impact on food security and nutrition 1). Even with the fact that these people also express interest in food as a leisure-related concept, their financial condition makes it difficult for them to actually experiences positive results as a result of being actively engaged in this process.

The masses are vulnerable to outside influences and the mass media is one of the strongest actors persuading them to put across certain attitudes in regard to food. The present-day social order has acknowledged the fact that it is essential for people to put across particular interest in regard to the effects that the food that they consume has on them in order for their experience with food to be pleasurable (both from a physical and from a mental point-of-view). Food television is one of the most important concepts in developed and developing countries and it is one of the reasons for which the masses take on particular positions in regard to some food assortments. From food programs to food channels that are entirely dedicated to providing food-related information, mass media devices are an active participant in shaping the way that people see food.

In addition to providing people with information concerning what are some of the best foods that they can possibly get their hands on, food television programs also promote social expectations. The mass media provides personalized programs for people to watch and individuals can thus view whatever they are interested in by watching their favorite programs. Consequent to watching a food-related program a person is likely to express interest in eating particular foods and in having them cooked in a certain fashion. Cooking shows started to appear in the media right after the Second World War as entrepreneurs were testing new methods of gathering large audiences. Numerous food-related television programs emerged during the second half of the twentieth century and viewers appeared to be especially interested in the concepts that they put across. American and English television operators issued food-related programs and promoted names like James Beard, and, respectively, Dionne Lucas. These people managed to draw a significant number of supporters and people started to comprehend the potential of combining food with television. Julia Child and Graham Kerr gathered numerous viewers in the 1960s and enabled individuals to learn that it was not dangerous for them to look at food as an international and intriguing affair (Adema).

While Child and Kerr are two of the most notable individuals to host a food-related television program during the early days of the industry, it was not until Martha Stewart entered the scene that these type of programs started to gather a lot of attention. This person was actively involved in the lives of her viewers by influencing them in changing their lifestyle completely. Not only was she interested in providing them with information regarding…


Sample Source(s) Used

Works cited:

Adema, Pauline, "Vicarious Comsumption: Food, Television and the Ambiguity of Modernity,"Journal of American and Comparative Cultures 23.3 (2000)

Allen, Gary J., The Business of Food: Encyclopedia of the Food and Drink Industries, (ABC-CLIO, 2007)

Counihan, Carole, Food and culture: a reader, (Routledge, 2008)

Roberts, Kenneth, Leisure in contemporary society, (CABI, 2006)

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…OccupationalStressandScientificMonitoringLiteratureReview2.1IntroductionThedefinitionoftheterm“occupationalstress”isderivedfromthedefinitionofitstwoconstituentwords.Inthiscontext,occupationalreferstoanythingthatisrelatedtotheworkplacewhilestressisdefinedasanaturalbodyreactionfromphysical,mentaloremotionalstraininanindividual.Thus,occupationalstresscanbedefinedasanymechanismbywhichthebodyattemptstoadapttotheworkplaceenvironment.Theseincludenormalmechanismsfordealingwithworkplacestress,commonlyknownasthefightorflightresponseaswellasanyexpectedorunexpectedreactionsinresponsetotheworkplace.Theseincludeeyestrainbecauseofstaringatcomputerscreensfortoolong,emotionalandphysicalstress,depression,anxiety,aggression,cognitiveimpairmentsuchasdegradedmemoryorreducedconcentrationspan,etc.Allofthesereactionscanleadtopoorworkoutput,increasedemployeeturnover,higherabsenteeism,cardiovasculardisease,injuryorevendeath(Pattersonetal.,2005).Occupationalstresscanalsobedefinedasahazardundertherelevantoccupationalsafetyandhealthlegislationthatcancauseanyharmtoemployeehealthandtowhichemployershaveadutyofcaretoassess,identifyandcontrolasmuchaspossible.Itcanalsobedefinedinotherwordsastheconsequenceofanindividualbeingunabletocopewithpressuresintheworkplace(Rees,1997).Theseundesirableoutcomescomeabouteitherbecauseofpoorfitbetweentheperson’sabilitiesandtherequirementofhisorherpositionorbecauseofworkplaceconditionsbeingotherwiseunfavorable.Becausethewell-beingofemployeesisinextricablyassociatedwithorganizationalperformanceandproductivity,occupationalstressdemandstimelyinvestigationtoidentifywaystomitigatetheseeffects(OsibanjoandSalau,2016).AlthoughunemploymentlevelsintheUnitedStateshavesteadilydeclinedinrecentyears,therehasbeenacorrespondingincreaseintheamountofoccupationalstresslevelsbeingreportedbyAmericanworkers.AsurveysponsoredbyEverestCollegeandconductedbyHarrisInteractivefoundthatfully83%ofallemployedworkersintheUnitedStatesreportbeingstressedbyatleastonejob-relatedfactor(anincreasefrom73%forthepreviousyear),withinadequatepayandinordinatelyexcessiveworkloadsbeingamongthetopfactorsreportedbyU.S.workers(Workstressontherise,2013).Basedonthefindingsthatemergedfromthissurvey,JohnSwartz,theregionaldirectorofcareerservicesatEverestCollege,concludedthat,“Morecompaniesarehiring,butworkersarestillwearyandstressedoutfromyearsofatroubledeconomythathasbroughtaboutlongerhours,layoffsandbudgetcuts”(ascitedinWorkstressontherise,2013,p.3).Althoughagrowingbodyofresearchconfirmsthatpaylevelsarenolongeramongthemostmotivationalfactorsforworkers,compensationlevelsremainatornearthetopofjob-relatedstressorstoday.Inthisregard,theHarrisInteractivesurveyfoundthatinordinatelyheavyworkloadstiedwithinadequatecompensationlevelsasbeingthetopjobstressorsatpresent,andbothofthesevariablesshowedsignificantincreasesoverthepreviousyear(Workstressontherise,2013).Otherjob-relatedfactorsthatwerefoundtoexacerbateoccupationalstresslevelsincludedpoorrelationshipswithcoworkers,theamountoftimerequiredtocommutetoandfromwork,beingcompelledtoworkinacareerfieldthatisnotalignedwiththeirpersonalinterests,poorwork-lifebalancesandapaucityofcareeradvancementopportunities(Workstressontherise,2013).Itisalsonoteworthythatthereweresomesignificantgender-relateddifferencesintheoccupationalstresslevelsreportedbyAmericanworkers,withnearlytwiceasmanyfemaleworkersasmaleworkers(18%vs.10%)reportinginadequatepaylevelsastheirprimaryjobstressor(Workstressontherise,2013).Inaddition,youngerworkersweremorelikelythantheiroldercounterparts(i.e.,BabyBoomers)toreportbeingstressedasaresultoftheiremployment(Workstressontherise,2013).Insum,youngerAmericanwomen(aged18to29years)arethemoststressedatworkbutothercategoriesofworkersremainathighriskofoccupationalstressaswell(Workstressontherise,2013).Althougheveryoneexperiencesthenegativeandpositiveeffectsofoccupationalstressuniquely,therearesomecommontypesofstressthataretypicalresponsestounmitigatedworkplacestressasdiscussedbelow.2.2TypesofstressStressisthehumanresponsetoanytypesofdemand,andsuchresponsescanbeeitherpositiveornegative(Sharma,2015).Fromabiophysicalperspective,stresscanberegardedasbeingamental,physical,oremotionalresponsethatresultsinmentalorphysicaltension(Sharma,2015).Occupationalstresscanalsobedefinedastheadversepsychologicalandphysicalreactionsthatoccurinanindividualasaresultoftheirbeingunabletocopewiththedemandsbeingmadeonthem(Omolara,2008).Stressthathappensduetoaperson\\\'semploymentistermedoccupationalstress.Thetermsworkplacestress,jobstressandoccupationalstressareusedinterchangeably(Dollard,2003).Regardlessofwhatitiscalled,occupationalstresslevelsarenotoriouslydifficulttoquantifyandmeasure,makingtheevaluationofstress-managementinterventionsespeciallyproblematic.Inresponse,researchershavedevelopedanumberofdifferentcategoriesofjobstressorstofacilitatetheprocessasdiscussedbelow.Jobstressorshavebeenclassifiedintovariouscategoriesbydifferentinvestigatorsovertheyears.Forexample,El-KotandBurkenotethatresearchersduringthesecondhalfofthe20thccenturyidentifiedfivediscretecategoriesofjobstressorsasfollows:(1)stressorsintrinsictothejob,(2)fromone\\\'sroleintheorganization,(3)careerdevelopment,(4)relationshipswithothers,and(5)organizationalstructureandculture.Otherresearchershaveidentifiedfourmaincategoriesofjobstressors:(1)fromtaskdemands,(2)roledemands,(3)physicaldemands(fromelementsinone\\\'sphysicalsettingorenvironment),and(4)interpersonaldemands;inadditionandmorerecently,work-familydemandshavealsobeenincludedinthecategoriesofjobstressorsbysomeorganizationalbehavioralresearchers(El-KotandBurke,2011).Moresuccinctly,aspositedbyNordstrometal.(2001),therearetwomajortypesofstressthatcanoccurinaperson.Thesearephysicalandmentalstress.Physicalstressreferstoanyphysicalreactionofthebodytowardvarioustriggers.Physicalstressisamajorcauseofemotionalstresssincethetwomanifestsineachother.Mentalstress,ontheotherhand,referstomentalexhaustion.AccordingtoKeegeletal.(2009),mentalstressreferstomentalstrainasaresultofaharmfulagentthatcanleadtoillness.Itisreasonabletopositthatsustainedmentalstrainduetooccupationalstresscanhavesuchseriouseffects.Thetwodifferenttypesofstresshavedifferentsignsandsymptoms,someofwhicharemorereadilydiscerniblethanothers.Forexample,physicalstresscanbeseenwhentheperson’sheartratebecomeshighandtheybegintobreathfaster.Incertainsituations,thepersoncanalsostarttosweatprofuselyorevenhavecoldfeet,handsorskin.Anothercommonsignisthatthemouthoftheindividualdriesupandtheymayalso;feeltiredandfatiguedmorefrequently.Theremayalsobemusclespasms,shortnessofbreath,tighteningofmusclesandtensionofthebody(Iavicolietal.,2001).Othercommonsignsofphysicalstressincludethepersoneatingmoreorlessthannormalconstantlyfeelingnervous.Thisisoftendetectedinsignssuchastwitchingofmuscles,fiddling,talkingrapidlyortoomuch,grindingteeth,nailbiting,pacingupanddownrestlessly,orotheruncommonrepetitivehabits.Inotherextremesituations,thepersonmaydevelopdiseasesorconditionssuchasmigraines,asthma,stomachandskinproblems,achesandpains,flu,etc.Thesesignscomeaboutasaresultofthephysicalwell-beingofthepersonbeingoffbalance(CrouterandManke,1994).Asnotedabove,youngerAmericanwomencurrentlysufferthehighestlevelsofoccupationalstressinthecountry,andtheseindividualsarealsoathigherriskofexperiencingadverseeffectsfromjob-relatedphysicalstressaswellasthedeleteriouseffectsthatcanresultfromoccupationalmentalstress(Chitnis,2014).Inthisregard,mentalstressisoftenseenwhenthepersonhassleepingdisordersthatmakethemeithersleeplessormorethanusual,constantfeelingofworry,anxietyorconfusion,frequentmoodchangessuchasfrustration,depression,anger,defensiveness,irritability,irrationality,impatient,restlessnessoroverreaction.Othercommonsignsofoccupationalstressincludedependenceonharmfulsubstancessuchasdrugs,alcoholorcigarettes(Okechukwuetal.,2010).Incertainsituations,thepersonmayalsodevelopapoormemoryortheinabilitytomakedecisions.Inextremesituations,apersonmayevendevelopirrationalfearsofnormalsituationssuchasseeingsunlight,washingunderrunningwater,venturingoutdoors,etc.Allthesesignscomeaboutbecauseofthementalsituationofthepersonbeingadverselyaffectedbyjob-relatedstressors.2.3SignsofoccupationalstressOccupationalstressusuallystartsoutasacutestressthatoccursfromtheincreasingdemandandpressureoftheworksituation.Itcanleadapersontoemotionaldistressthatisseeninanger,anxiety,depression,orirritability.Itcanalsoleadapersontophysicalproblemssuchasmuscletension,achesandpains,frequentheadaches,jawandbackpain.Thesenormallycomefromthepersonbeingexposedtoalotofmanualworkintheworkplacesuchaswalkingorstandingforlongperiods.Suchactivitiesmayalsoleadtoelevationofbloodpressurelevels,sweatypalms,rapidheartbeat,dizziness,coldfeetandhands,chestorbackpain,migrainesorshortnessofbreath.Occupationalstresscanalsobeseenwhenapersondevelopsstomachorbowelproblemsincludingheartburn,diarrhea,constipation,flatulenceorirritablebowelsyndrome.Thesemaybeasaresultofphysicalormentalstressintheworkplace(EldonandShani,1991).Occupationalstressmayalsohaveothersignssuchaslonelinessorisolationofanindividual,agitationorthepersonbeingunabletorelax,pessimism,lossofconcentration,constantworrying,procrastinationorneglectingpersonalresponsibilityorothernervoushabitssuchaspacing,grindingteethandnailbiting.2.4Effects/ConsequencesofjobstressAsputbyHulshofetal.(1999),occupationalstressisquitenormal.However,whenitbecomesexcessive,therearecertainadverseeffectsthatitmaycause.Theseeffectscanbedividedintothreedistinctcategories.Theseareeffectsontheindividual,tofamilyandtotheorganization.Atallthesethreelevels,occupationalstressproducesawiderangeofexpensive,debilitatingandundesirableconsequences(Ross,2005)asdiscussedfurtherbelow.2.5ConsequencestotheindividualWorkplacestresscanleadtovariouseffectsontheindividual.Thesemaybemildorseveredependingontheextentofthestress.Theycanbedividedintotwomajorgroups,whicharephysicalandpsychologicaleffects.Inthisregard,El-KotandBurke(2011,p.11)reportthat,“Individualsreportinghigherlevelsofjobstressorsgenerallyindicatelowerlevelsofjobsatisfaction,moreabsenteeism,lowerjobperformance,greaterintenttoquit,andlowerlevelsofpsychologicalandphysicalhealth.”Themajorphysicaleffectsareunwantedfeelingsandbehaviors,whichincludefatigue,stomachupset,headache,muscularachesandpains,disturbanceofsleeporsleepingdisorders,eatingdisordersandotherchronicormildillnesses.Othersincludelowmotivation,lowwork-lifebalance,lowoverallqualityofworklife,absenteeism,lowmorale,lowproductivity,unsounddecisions,intentiontogetabetterjob,occupationalburnout,alienation,increasedsubstanceabuse,sabotageorsolitude.Psychologicalproblemsincludeanxiety,irritabilityorshorttemper,psychologicaldistress,passive-aggressivebehaviors,lossofself-confidence,lossofself-esteem,feelingsoffatigueandfutility,impulsivebehavior,lossofcontactwithreality,jobandlifedissatisfaction,andemotionalfatigue(Spector,2002).Moretroublingstill,theconsequencesofunmitigatednegativeoccupationalstressontheindividualextendtoalltypesofsectorsandindustriesamongbothwhite-andblue-collarworkers(Chaudry,2012).Whenoccupationalstressisnotkeptincheck,itmaybecomechronicandleadtosignssuchastraumaorevendepression.Apersonmayalsochangetheirbeliefsorviewsregardingaparticularaspectoflifebecauseoftheiractiveself-examinationoftenwithoutprofessionalhelps.Otheradverseeffectsincludeheartattack,cancer,violence,suicideorevenparalysis(ManonMireilleandBarling,2004).InastudythatwasconductedintheUS(Smithetal.,1992),itwasfoundthatelectronicmonitoringofemployeesintheworkplaceledtoincreaseworkplacestressandthusmanyeitherexperiencedhighboredomlevels,anxiety,depression,healthcomplaints,psychologicaltension,anger,andfatigue.Theresearchersalsofoundthatthesecompanieshadhighemployeeturnoverbecauseofthismonitoring(Smithetal.,1992).2.6ConsequencestofamilyTheindividual’sfamilyalsoexperiencesundesirableconsequencesbecauseofoccupationalstress.Consequently,ofoccupationalstress,theindividualmayalsocarrysomeofthestresstotheirhomethuscausingstresstotheotherfamilymembers.Thepersonmayalsofailtoprovideforthefamilybecauseoflosingtheirjoborspendingtoomuchmoneyonsubstanceabuseortreatment.Therearealsootheradverseeffectstothefamily.Theseincludedealingwithsicknessorevendeathoftheindividual(WindleandDumenci,1997).Incertainsituations,occupationalstressmayalsobreakmarriagesandfamiliesbecauseofthefamilynotbeingabletocopewiththeindividual’sdysfunctionalresponses.Thecouplemayalsobeadverselyaffectedintheirsexlifebecauseofstress.Occupationalstressalsoincreasesdomesticpressuressuchasfinancialworriesandchildcareresponsibilitiesthusaffectingthequalityoflifeoutsidetheirwork(Suraj-Narayan,2005).Othereffectsincludetakingworkhome,whichreducestheamountoftimespentwithfamilymembers,jobrelocationsthatmaysplitfamiliesandalackofleisureactivities(Suraj-Narayan,2005).2.7ConsequencestotheorganizationAttheorganizationallevel,therearealsoconsequencesofoccupationalstressthatarefelt.Thesearemajorlydividedintotwosubgroups,whichareorganizationalsymptomsandcosts.Organizationalsymptomsincludediscontentandlowmoralethatmayalsospreadtoothermembersoftheworkforce,lowproductivity,poorqualityofservicetocustomersorclientsthatmayleadtolossofcustomers,badpublicityespeciallywhenanindividualsufferschroniceffectsofworkplacestress,highaccidentratesthatleadtohugeinsurancecompensations,prematureretirement,highstaffturnover,poorinternalcommunication,increasedinternalconflict,diminishedcooperationofstaffmembersoradysfunctionalworkplaceclimate(HuffmanandCohen,2004).Indeed,theresearchtodatesuggeststhatasmuchas50percentofallworkplaceabsencesattributableinsomefashiontooccupationalstress(Akpochafe,2012).Organizationalcostsincludereducedperformanceorproductivityofworkersthatleadstodecreasedaddedvaluetotheproductorservicethusdiminishingclientsatisfaction,highcostsasaresultofincreasedemployeeturnover,increasedstaffretrainingandtrainingcosts,increasedinsurancepremiumsasaresultoffrequentinsuranceclaimsandpayouts,increasedhealth-carecostsandsickpaytoemployees,increaseddisabilitypaymentsasaresultofworkplaceaccidents,increasedcostofrepairingdamagedequipment,andbadpublicitywhichalsodiminishesrevenuesgreatly(BéjeanandSultan-Taïeb,2005).Becauseoccupationalstresshavebeenswhontohaveadirectimpactonemployeeperformance,itisnotsurprisingthatthereisalsoacorrespondingdeclineintheoverallproductivitylevelofaffectedorganizations.Suchdeclinesinoverallproductivityhaveaconcomitanteffectoncompanies’profitabilityandcanevenresultinanincreasinglynegativeperceptionofacompany(Sharma,2015).Consequently,theadverseeffectsofoccupationalstressultimatelycombinetoadverselyaffectemployeerelationsaswellasorganizationalperformanceandprofitability(Sharma,2015).AccordingtoastudyconductedbyDaniels(2004),occupationalstresshasbeenfoundtocosttheUKeconomyandestimated$4billioneveryyear(BrunandMilczarek,2007).Thesecostsaremajorlyfrominsuranceclaimsrelatedtooccupationalstress.Withsuchhugepayouts,theresearchersfoundthatthereisreasontoconcentrateonthesocioculturalvariationintheirfindings.Theyalsofoundthatthishugesumwasalsocomingfromlossofcustomers,highemployeeturnoverandnegativepublicitybecauseofoccupationalstress.IntheEuropeanUnionasawhole,itisestimatedthatroughly20millionEurosislosteachyearasaresultofwork-relatedstress(EuropeanCommission,2002,Milczareketal.,2009).2.8PositiveeffectsofworkplacestressThoughoccupationalstressisoftenassociatedwithnegativeeffects,therearecertainpositiveeffectsthatcomefromworkplacestress.However,expertsputacaveatonpositivityofstressstatingthatitonlyhappenswhenstressisbalancedandmoderated.Thisiswhattheycommonlyrefertoas‘goodstress’(Shigemietal.,2000).Forexample,SauderandMurphy(2016)reportthattherearesomemisperceptionsconcerningstressanditseffectsofhumansthatindicatethatallsuchstressisharmful.Agrowingbodyofevidence,however,confirmsthatsomelevelofstressisanessentialpartofthehumanconditionandpeopletendtorespondfavorablytosometypesofstress.AccordingtoSauderandMurphy(2016,p.6),“Challengeenergizesuspsychologicallyandphysically,anditmotivatesustolearnnewskillsandmasterourjobs.”Notwithstandingthepotentialdeleteriouseffectsofunmitigatedandrelentlessworkplacestress,itisclearthatwithoutsomelevelsofstress,employeeswouldbecomecomplacentwithcorrespondingdeclinesintheirjobsatisfactionandmoralelevels–justastoomuchworkplacestresscancausetheseunwantedoutcomes.Insum,SauderandMurphy(2016,p.7)concludethat,“Theimportanceofchallengeinourworklivesisprobablywhatpeoplearereferringtowhentheysay‘alittlebitofstressisgoodforyou.’”Oneofthemostsignificantoutcomesof“goodstress”isincreasedcreativity.Consequently,ofanindividualexperiencingworkplacestressleadingtolonelinessorsolitude,thepersonmayhaveachancetobroadentheirmindandembracenewideasthusleadingthemtoincreasetheircreativityconsiderably.Tosomeindividuals,stressisalsoamotivatingfactor.Whentheseindividualsarestressedout,theyfindagoodwaytohandleitbychannelingtheiremotionalandphysicalresponsestowardsworkingharderorrectifyinganywrongstheyhaddoneforexampleprocrastination(Smith,2003).Stressisalsorecognizedasacognitiveenhancer.Workplacestressimprovessomeaspectsofintelligencebygivingthemindaboostassociatedwithincreasedfocusing.Whenapersonisstressed,theymaybeabletorecallormemorizethingsbetterandtheirconcentrationlevelsmayalso;increase.Italsoenhancesthephysicalperformanceandenduranceofanindividual.Whenthepersonisabletochanneltheirstresstowardsphysicalactivities,itleadstoreleaseofadrenaline.Thiscausestheheartbeatandmetabolismtoincrease.However,thesereturntonormallevelsafewminutesaftertheactivity.Therefore,thepersonwillhaveincreasedreflexesandreactionsthatbuildendurance,preventandfightfatigueandtiredness.Researchershavealsoshownthatstresshelpstoimproveimmuneresponses.InastudyreportpresentedbyStrikeretal.(1999),itwasfoundthatstresshelpstoincreaseproductionofthestresshormone,cortisol,whichincreasesthebody’simmunity.Thisalsohassomenegativeaspectsincecortisoloverloadingmayleadtoabdominalobesity,whichincreasestheriskofcardiovascularandcerebrovasculardiseaseanddiabetes.Stressmayalsohelpanindividualtosolvetheirproblems.Consequently,ofstress,theindividualmaybeabletolookatsomethingdifferentlywhichallowsthemtosolveissuesbetweenthem.Moderateanxietyhasbeenshowntohelppeopleindecisionmakingbyspurringthemtotherightdirection.2.9CausesofworkplacestressGivenitsenormousimpactonorganizationalperformanceandproductivity,itisnotsurprisingthatagrowingbodyofscholarshiphasbeendevotedtothecausesofworkplacestressinrecentyears.StudiesbytheAmericanPsychologicalAssociationhaveidentifiedthemaincausesofstressintheUnitedStatesasshowninTable1below.Table1CurrentleadingcausesofstressintheUnitedStatesCauseFactors1JobPressureCo-WorkerTension,Bosses,WorkOverload2MoneyLossofJob,ReducedRetirement,MedicalExpenses3HealthHealthCrisis,TerminalorChronicIllness4RelationshipsDivorce,DeathofSpouse,ArgumentswithFriends,Loneliness5PoorNutritionInadequateNutrition,Caffeine,ProcessedFoods,RefinedSugars6MediaOverloadTelevision,Radio,Internet,E-Mail,SocialNetworking7SleepDeprivationInabilitytoreleaseadrenalineandotherstresshormonesSource:AmericanInstituteofStress(2018),‘2014StressStatistics”athttps://www.stress.org/AscanbeseenfromthebreakdownoftheleadingcausesofstressintheUnitedStatestodayshowninTable1above,job-relatedstressorssuchaspoorrelationshipswithcoworkersandsuperiorsaswellasinordinatelyheavyworkloadsformtheprimarycauseofstresstoday.Likewise,thesecond-leadingcauseofstressintheUnitedStatesisalsojobrelated,withthelossofemploymentorbenefitsrepresentingthesecond-leadingcauseofstressinthecountry.Moreover,thenumbersofAmericansthatareexperiencedthesetypesofjob-relatedstressorsisstaggeringasshowninTable2below.Table2U.S.stressstatisticsCategoryDataPercentofpeoplewhoregularlyexperiencephysicalsymptomscausedbystress77%Regularlyexperiencepsychologicalsymptomscausedbystress73%Feeltheyarelivingwithextremestress33%Feeltheirstresshasincreasedoverthepastfiveyears48%Citedmoneyandworkastheleadingcauseoftheirstress76%Reportedlyingawakeatnightduetostress48%Source:AmericanInstituteofStress(2018),‘2014StressStatistics”athttps://www.stress.org/AscanbeseenfromthedatapresentedinTable2above,morethanthree-quarters(77%)ofAmericanworkersreportexperiencingstress-relatedphysicalsymptomsandnearlyasmany(73%)reportregularlyexperiencingjob-relatedpsychologicalsymptoms.Inaddition,one-thirdofAmericanworkersreportfeelingasiftheyarelivingwithextremestressandnearlyhalf(48%)reportfeelingasiftheirlevelofstresshasintensifiedoverthepast5years.Giventhesedisturbingtrends,itisnotsurprisingthatmanyAmericanworkersalsoreportsufferingfromvariousjob-relatedstressorsassetforthinTable3below.Table3StressimpactstatisticsCategoryDataPercentwhosaystresshasanegativeimpactontheirpersonalandprofessionallife48%Employedadultswhosaytheyhavedifficultymanagingworkandfamilyresponsibilities.31%Percentwhocitedjobsinterferingwiththeirfamilyorpersonaltimeasasignificantsourceofstress.35%Percentwhosaidstresshascausedthemtofightwithpeopleclosetothem54%Reportedbeingalienatedfromafriendorfamilymemberbecauseofstress26%Annualcoststoemployersinstressrelatedhealthcareandmissedwork.$300billionPercentwhosaytheyare“always”or“often”understressatwork30%Source:AmericanInstituteofStress(2018),‘2014StressStatistics”athttps://www.stress.org/Whilesometypesofjob-relatedstressmaybeconducivetohigherlevelsofcreativityandserveasamotivationalfactor,thedatapresentedinTable3abovemakesitclearthatmanyAmericanworkerssufferfromoccupationalstress.Infact,nearlyhalf(48%)reportthatstresshashadanegativeeffectontheirpersonalandprofessionallives,andmorethanhalf(54%)reportthatstressthatcausedthemproblemswiththeirinterpersonalrelationships.Inaddition,almostone-third(30%)reportfeelingthattheyarefrequentlyoralwaysunderstressattheirjobs,andmorethanone-third(35%)reportthattheirjobshaveinterferedwiththeirfamilyorpersonalaffairsresultinginelevatedstresslevels.Beyondthehumantollexactedbyjob-relatedstress,theeconomicimpactisalsoenormous,standingatabout$300billionayearinhealthcarecostsandmissedwork.ResearchbytheAmericanPsychologicalAssociationhasalsoidentifiedanumberofphysicalsymptomsthatarecausedbyoccupationalstressthatarecongruentwiththemostfrequentlycitedsymptomsintherelevantliteratureassetforthinTable4below.Table4PercentageofAmericanworkerscitingjob-relatedstress:physicalsymptomsCategoryDataFatigue51%Headache44%Upsetstomach34%Muscletension30%Changeinappetite23%Teethgrinding17%Changeinsexdrive15%Feelingdizzy13%Source:AmericanInstituteofStress(2018),‘2014StressStatistics”athttps://www.stress.org/AscanbeseenfromthedatapresentedinTable4above,morethanhalf(51%)ofAmericanworkersreportexperiencingfatigueasaresultofjob-relatedstress,andnearlyasmany(44%)reportsufferingfromheadaches.Morethanone-thirdofAmericanworkers(34%)alsoreportexperiencingupsetstomachs,muscletension(30%)andalmostone-quarter(23%)reportchangesintheirappetitesduetojob-relatedstress.SmallerpercentagesofAmericanworkersalsoreportedsufferingfrombruxism(e.g.,teethgrinding),changesintheirlibidos,orfeelingdizzy.Inaddition,manyAmericanworkersalsoreportexperiencingawidearrayofpsychologicalsymptomsduetojob-relatedstressassetforthinTable5below.Table5Americanworkerscitingjob-relatedstress:psychologicalsymptomsCategoryDataIrritabilityoranger50%Feelingnervous45%Lackofenergy45%Feelingasthoughyoucouldcry35%Source:AmericanInstituteofStress(2018),‘2014StressStatistics”athttps://www.stress.org/AscanbeseenfromthedatapresentedinTable5above,fullyhalfofAmericanworkersreportsufferingfromirritabilityorangerduetojob-relatedstressand45%eachreportfeelingnervousorexperiencingalackofenergy.Inaddition,morethanone-third(35%)reportingfeelingastheycouldcryatanytimeduetojob-relatedstress.Theserecentstatisticsunderscorethefactthatgettingupandgoingtoworkeachdaycanbeadeath-defyingexperienceformanyifnotmostAmericanstoday.Althoughthereisageneralconsensusamongresearchersthattheoverarchingcausesofworkplacestressincludevariousworkplaceconditionsandthemannerinwhichworkersinteractwiththeseconditions(SauterandMurphy,2016).Thereremainssomedebateamongresearchers,however,concerningthepreciseroleplayedbyindividualfactorssuchaspersonality,copingskillsandresilienceontheeffectsofworkplacestress(SauterandMurphy,2016).EmployeeresiliencetoworkplacestressisdefinedbyNilakantandWalker(2014,p.80),asbeing“themaintenanceofpositiveadjustmentunderchallengingconditionssuchthattheorganizationemergesfromthoseconditionsstrengthenedandmoreresourceful.”Whileadditionalresearchisneededconcerningtheseindividualfactorsandtheirroleinemployeeresponsestoworkplacestress,itisreasonabletopositthatcertaintypesofworkingconditionsarethesourceofstressformostindividuals(SauterandMurphy,2016).ThisassertioniscongruentwiththeguidanceprovidedbytheU.S.NationalInstituteforOccupationalSafetyandHealthwhichhasrecognizedthatwhile“viewsdifferontheimportanceofworkercharacteristicsversusworkingconditionsastheprimarycauseofjobstress,”theoverarchingthemethatemergesfromtheresearchtodateconcerningoccupationalstressisthat“certainworkingconditions,suchasexcessiveworkloadsandconflictingexpectations,arestressfulandnegativelyaffectmostpeople”(ascitedinSewell,2009p.37).Whatisknownforcertainatpresentisthattherearemanycausesofstressrangingfromworkdemand,supervisorystyle,organizationalcultureandsupport,workhazards,generalworkenvironment,roleconflict,workplacechanges,individualfactors,jobinvolvement,workflexibility,workplaceincidents,etc.SixmajorcausesofworkplacestresshavebeenidentifiedbytheHealthandSafetyExecutiveoftheUK(HealthandSafetyExecutive,2013)asfollows:2.9.1Unreasonabledemands:Thiscauseincludesissuessuchasworkload,workpatternsandtheworkenvironment;2.9.2Excessivecontrol:Howmuchsaythepersonhasinthewaytheydotheirwork;2.9.3Lackofsupport:Thisincludestheencouragement,sponsorshipandresourcesprovidedbytheorganization,linemanagementandcolleagues;2.9.4Lackofproperworkplacerelationships:Thisincludespromotingpositiveworkingtoavoidconflictanddealingwithunacceptablebehavior;2.9.5.Lackofunderstandingofroleofjobexpectation:Whetherpeopleunderstandtheirrolewithintheorganizationandwhethertheorganizationensuresthattheydonothaveconflictingroles;and,2.9.6Unmanagedworkplacechanges:Howorganizationalchange(largeorsmall)ismanagedandcommunicatedintheorganization(Workplacestressmanagementstandards,2017,p.2).ThesecausesofworkplacestressarealsosimilartothoseidentifiedbytheOccupationalSafetyandHealthAdministrationintheUS(OccupationalSafety&HealthAdministration,1995)andarediscussedfurtherbelow.2.10UnreasonabledemandsWorkplacedemandsincludeissuesrelatingtoworkload,workenvironmentandpatterns.Occupationalstressmayoccurwhentheemployeesareunabletocopewiththeirworkplacedemands.Consequently,ofthis,thepersonmayfeelthattheyareunabletomatchtheskillsandabilities.Thereforetheemployeesdevelopstressasawayofcompensatingfortheirinabilitytomeettheworkplacedemands(Tarafdaretal.,2007).ThiscauseofworkplacestressisconsistentwiththedefinitionprovidedbySharma(2015)whichstatesthatoccupationalstresscanbedefinedas“theadversepsychologicalandphysicalreactionsthatoccurinanindividualasaresultoftheirbeingunabletocopewiththedemandsbeingmadeonthem”(p.53).2.11ExcessivecontrolControlappliedbyemployersandsupervisorsisalsoacontributingfactortoworkplacestress.Whenemployeesareexcessivelymonitoredintheworkplace,theydevelopboredom,dislike,lowmotivationandlowmorale,whichleadtoworkplacestress.Consequently,ofthisexcessivecontrol,theemployeesareunabletousetheirskills,creativityandinitiativetowardsthesuccessoftheorganization.Theemployeesalsobecomediscouragedtodevelopnewskillssincetheyaredemotivatedandunwillingtotakenewchallengesintheworkplace.AstudybyKirk-BrownandWallace(2009)foundthattheextenttowhichemployeesfeeltheylackpersonalday-to-daycontrolovertheirjobresponsibilitieswilllikelybetheextenttowhichtheseemployeesareatgreaterriskofdevelopingoccupationalstress.Forinstance,Kirk-BrownandWallace(2009,p.30)advisethat,“Perceptionsofpersonalcontrolalleviatethenegativeimpactofjobdemands.Controlreferstotheworker\\\'sabilitytoreframeeventsorsituationsaslessthreatening.”2.12LackofsupportWhenemployeeslackencouragement,resourcesandsponsorshipfromtheorganization,supervisorsandcolleagues,theydevelopstress.Thisisbecausetheyareunabletoachievetheperformancemeasuresattachedtotheirjobsandtheyexperiencechallengesandotherissuesthattheyareunabletoresolve.Thereforetheemployeesarediscouragedtoputtheirbesteffortstowardsthesuccessofthecompanyororganization(Verbeeketal.,2004).2.13LackofproperworkplacerelationshipsWorkplacerelationshipscreateconflictthatemployeesareunabletoresolve.Theseincludebullying,harassmentandotherundesirablebehaviors.Whentheorganizationlackspoliciesandprocedurestopreventorresolvesuchunacceptablebehavior,theyseemoutofcontrolandemployeesdevelopstressbecauseofthis.2.14LackofunderstandingofroleofjobexpectationWhenemployeesdonotunderstandtheirrolewithinanorganizationorwhentheyarenotappreciatedorvaluedwithinanorganization,theydevelopinternalconflictssincetheydonotunderstandtheirimportanceandjobexpectations.Employeesthusdonotmakeeffortstoensuretheirworkisdonetothebestoftheirabilityandtheybecomedemoralizedanddemotivatedtowork.2.15UnmanagedworkplacechangesResistancetochangeisoneofthemajorcausesofworkplacestress.Thisisespeciallysowhenthechangeinvolveslargeaspectsoftheorganizationsuchasanoverhaulofmanagementorstandardoperatingprocedures.Suchchangesmaybeoverwhelmingfortheemployeesandwhenchangemanagementisnotdone,theemployeeswillnotbeawareofthereasonforthechangeandthuswillresistitleadingtoworkplacestressastheyfeeluncomfortablewiththenewstatusquo(Vahteraetal.,1999).2.16FactorsthataffectjobperformancefromstressAnunfortunateconcomitantofvirtuallyanytypeofemploymentissomelevelofstress.Insomecases,thestressthatemployeesroutinelyexperienceismotivationalandcontributestogreaterlevelsofcreativity,butinfartoomanycasesjob-relatedstressislikeasilentkiller.Infact,leftunabated,job-relatedstresscanhaveaprofoundlyadverseeffectonjobperformance.Inthisregard,Lynott(2011,p.26)emphasizesthat,“Stressisaconstantpresenceintheworkplace,andnevermoresothanindifficulteconomictimessuchasthese.Occasionallyiteruptsintoheadline-makinginstancesofdeadlyviolence.Moreoften,however,stresssimmersjustbeneaththesurface,silentlyeatingawayatmorale[and]productivity.”Insum,itisapparentthattotheextentthatworkersarestressedoutduetojob-relatedfactorswilllikelybetheextenttowhichtheirjobperformanceisaffected,andtherehasalsobeenagrowingbodyofscholarshipdevotedtotheseissuesinrecentyears.Forinstance,inastudyconductedbyAbuAl-Rub(2004),itwasshownthatthereisaU-shapedorcurvilinearrelationshipbetweenworkplacestressandjobperformance.Thestudyshowedthatworkerswhohadmoderatelevelsofoccupationalstressperformedworseintheirjobscomparedtothosewhohaveextremelyloworhighlevelsofworkplacestress.Inadifferentbutsimilarstudy,itwasshownthattheremightbefourdifferentrelationshipsbetweenworkplacestressandjobperformance.ThesearecurvilinearorU-shaped,negativelinear,positivelinearandnorelationship(Jamal,1984).Thesetwostudiescitedaboveidentifiedvariousfactorsthatemanatefromstressanddirectlyaffecttheemployee’sjobperformance.Oneofthemajorfactorswaslackofresources.Whentheemployeelacksthenecessitiestoconducttheirjob,theyareunabletoperformintheirroles.Thesecondfactorwasworkoverload,whichmadetheworkerstobeoverwhelmedandlackdirectionwiththeirwork.Thirdwaslackofcommunicationbetweentheemployeesandsupervisors.Thismeantthattheemployeeslackeddirectionandwereunabletoconducttheirday-to-dayactivities.Italsocreatedadisconnectinpassingofdutiesthusmakingsupervisorstoberecognizedascommandersratherthanco-workers.Anotherstudyfoundthatemployeeswhowereunderstresswere50%morelikelytoerrintheirworkwhileanotherstudyshowedthatthiscouldbeashighas70%dependingonthelevelofstress.DatafromtheBureauofLaborStatisticsalsoshowsthatforeverydaythataworkerundergoesstresstheymayendupbeingoutoftheworkplaceforroughly20days.Toemployers,thisrepresentsahugereductioninjobperformance.Otherstudiesconductedintheearly50s(Lazarusetal.,1952)andlate60s(Wilkinson,1969)showthatoccupationalstressaffectstracking,verbalreasoning,signaldetectionandsentenceformationofemployees.Thismayalsoadverselyaffecttheclient-employeerelationsthusreducingthequalityofserviceorproductgiventotheemployer.Moreresearch(Cohen,1980,GlassandSinger,1972)hassupportedthesestatementsbyaddingthatstresscreatesperpetualdistractionsthatpreventtolerance,increasefrustration,decreaseclericalaccuracyandincreaseworkloadeitherperpetuallyoreventuallythroughprocrastination.Allthesefactorsleadtopoorjobperformance.AccordingtoMichie(2002),individualsdifferintheirstressriskandvulnerabilitytoadverseeffectsofstress.Individuals,theymaytendtoreactemotionallytosituations,whichresultsinthemdisconnectingwiththeworkplacethusreducingtheirjobperformance.Othersmayexperiencefatigueortirednessthatpreventsthemfromperformingtheirtasks.InanotherstudybyMichailidisandAsimenos(2002),itwasfoundthatoccupationalstressnegativelyimpactsthedegreeofsatisfactionoftheemployeewiththeirownachievement.Thisalsonegativelyaffectspersonalgrowth,skillutilizationandparticipationindecision-makingthusreducingjobperformance.2.17ManagementofstressStressmanagementhasbeenthesubjectofmanyworkplacechangesinordertocontrolthelevelsofstresstoimproveworkperformance.Itisinthebestinterestsoforganizationsofallsizesandtypestomanageworkplacestresstothemaximumextentpossibleduetothedocumentedadverseimpactthatunmitigatedstresscanhaveonemployeejobsatisfactionandphysicalwell-being(RandallandBuys,2013).Likewise,themanagementofworkplacestressisalsoimportantduetotheincreasedworkerscompensationclaimsthatareassociatedwithelevatedlevelsofstress(RandallandBuys,2013).Severaltechniqueshavebeenappliedtoimprovethegeneralwell-beingofemployeeswithvaryinglevelsofeffectiveness.Inaddition,fewofthesemethodshavereceivedattentionfromresearchersthereforetheamountandqualityofevidenceonthevarioustechniquesvariesgreatly.Managementofstressbuildsonthemodelsofstress,especiallythedemand-control-supportmodelthatstatesthatforstresstobemanagedeffectively,itisimportantfortheretobearewardandeffortstopromotebalance.Inadditiontothis,theorganizationmusthavesufficientsystemstoensureorganizationaljusticebyensuringmanagementofstressandanyprogramsadoptedareundertakenbyallemployeesincludingtheseniormanagement(JohnsonandHall,1990,KarasekandTheorell,1990).Researchersagreethattherearetwomajormodelsofworkplacestressmanagement.Thesearethetransactionalmodelandhealthrealizationorinnatehealthmodel.2.18TransactionalmodelThetransactionalmodelsuggeststhatstressresultsfromanimbalancebetweenthedemandsofanindividualandtheresourcesavailableorwhenpressureexceedstheabilityoftheindividualtocope.ItwasdevelopedbyLazarusandFolkman(1984)whopositedthatstressmanagementisbestwhentheindividualacceptsthatstressisasaresultoftheinabilityofthepersontocope.Therefore,stressmanagementispremisedonmediatingthestressresponsetoallowtheindividualtocontrolstresslevelsandincreasetheircopingability.Accordingtothetransactionalmodel,thepersonmustalsoidentifythefactorsthataffecttheirabilitytocontrolthestressinordertoidentifytherightinterventionmethodsthateffectivelytargettheidentifiedfactors.Theauthorsofthismodelarguethatstressisatransactionbetweentheindividualandtheirenvironmentthusbyidentifyingandcontrollingthemitigatingfactors,stresscanbemanagedeffectively.Thetransactionalmodelproposestheindividualtobetaughthowtomanagetheirstressorhowtheycanadequatelydevelopcopingskillstoimprovetheirlivesandbeabletohandleallmannerofstressors.2.19HealthrealizationorinnatehealthmodelThismodelwasputforthbySedgeman(2005)andMills(1995).Theauthorsarguethatstressisnotfoundedonthepresenceofanactualstressor.Themodeldoesnotfocusontheindividual’sappraisalofthestressorratherontheirthoughtprocess,whichdeterminestheirresponsetothesituation.Theauthorsofthemodelarguethatstressismanagedbyself-appraisal,whichfiltersallfactorsofinsecurityofnegativityandcreatesafeelingofwell-beingbyputtingagriponnegativeorinsecurethinking.Theindividualwillthusbeabletodisengagefromthestressorandintroducenaturalpositivefeelingsthatultimatelyreducestress.2.20OrganizationallevelmanagementMichie(2002)positsthatfortheeffectivemanagementofworkplacestress,theremustbeorganizationallevelinterventions.Theneedfororganizationlevelstressmanagementisbecausetheworkplaceitselfisthestressor.Therefore,theorganizationmustintroduceinterventionsatthestructurallevelincludinghiringmorestaff,reducingorincreasingworkschedulesappropriately,orcreatingaconduciveenvironmentoratthepsychologicallevelincludingsocialsupport,effectivesupervisionratherthaninvasivesupervisionandincreasingemployeeparticipationindecision-making.Likewise,CooperandCartwright(1999)reportthat,“Physicalcharacteristicsofthejob[such]asexcessiveheatandnoisemayproducestrainamongworkersandincreasetheprobabilityofaccidents.Shiftschedule,astructuralaspectofwork,canengendersignificantlevelofphysicalandmentaldiscomfortifnotorderedcorrectly.”Theemphasishereisontheorganizationbeingthesourceofstressmanagementpracticesratherthantheindividualandithasbeenshowntobeeffective(GardellandGustavsen,1980,Williamsetal.,1998).2.21DefinitionofsupervisionSupervisionisdefinedastheregulationorcontrolofbehaviorthroughlaidoutrulesorrestrictions.Accordingtovariousauthors,therearedifferentaspectsofsupervisionthatneedtobelookedatindefiningit.Theseincludetakingupofideasandpracticesthatprovidetherightenvironmenttofollowthelaidoutrulesandrestrictions,overseeingthatemployeesareprovidedwiththerighttoolsandresourcestosucceedintheirtasks,providingadviceandsupport,organizingworktasksinagreatordertomakedecisions.2.22CategoriesofsupervisorymodelsSupervisionmodelscanbecategorizedintothreecategoriesbasedontheirdefiningcharacteristics.Thesecategoriesarethepsychotherapy-basedsupervisionmodels,developmentalmodels,andintegrativemodels(SmithandWitt,1993).2.23Psychotherapy-basedsupervisionmodelsThesemodelsdwellonthenaturalextensionofthetherapyitselfandinformtheobservationandselectionofdataforsupervisors(HollowayandWolleat,1994).Oneexampleofthesemodelsisthepsychodynamicapproachtosupervisionwhichstatesthatpsychodynamicsupervisioncanbedividedintothreecategorieswhicharesupervisor-centered,employee-centeredandsupervisory-matrix-centered(Loganbilletal.,1982).Employee-centeredsupervisioncamefromSigmundFreud,whichstatesthatsupervisionfocusesontheemployeebehaviors.Inthiscase,theroleofthesupervisordependsontheemployee’sbehavior.Supervisor-centeredfocusesonthesupervisor’scontentandprocesstoassistemployeesinmanagementofresistance,resolvinganxietiesandotherproblems.Thesupervisory-matrix-centeredapproachmeansthatthesupervisor’sroleisnotthatofanuninvolvedexpertrathertheyshouldparticipateandreflectuponemployeedutiesandbehaviors(Haynesetal.,2003).Anotherexampleofthesemodelsisthecognitive-behavioralsupervisionmodelwhichstatesthatthesupervisor’smajortaskistoteachtheemployeethetheoreticalaspectsoftheirwork(LieseandBeck,1997).Anothermodelistheperson-centeredsupervisionmodel,whichstatesthatthesupervisorshouldensurethattheemployeeshavetherighttools,skillsandresourcestoperformtheirtasks.Thereforethesupervisorisacollaboratorinthesuccessoftheindividualbyprovidinganenvironmenttoengagetheemployeetowardssuccess(Lambers,2000).2.24DevelopmentalmodelsDevelopmentalmodelsdefineprogressivestagesofdevelopmentoftheemployeefromanovicetoanexpertwitheachstageconsistingofdiscreteskillsandcharacteristics.Accordingtothesemodels,thesupervisortakesadevelopmentalapproachtosupervisionbyaccuratelyidentifyingthecurrentstageoftheemployeeandfacilitatingtheirprogressiontothenextstage(ZimmermanandSchunk,2003).OneofthemostpopulardevelopmentalmodelsistheintegrateddevelopmentmodeldevelopedbyStoltenberg(1981)andStoltenbergandDelworth(1987).Themodeldescribesthreelevelsofemployeedevelopment.Thefirstisentry-levelwheretheyarefullofanxietyandfearofevaluation.Themid-leveliswheretheemployeesexperiencefluctuatinglevelsofconfidenceandmotivationwhilethethirdlevelisthatofsecurityandstablelevelsofmotivation.AnothermodelisRonnestadandSkovholt’smodelwhichstatesthatemployeesdevelopinsixphases(RonnestadandSkovholt,2003).Thefirstthreearebasedontheintegrateddevelopmentmodelwhiletheotherthreearethenoviceprofessional,experiencedprofessionalandseniorprofessionalphases,whichdefinetherelativeexperiencegainedbyemployeeintheircareer.2.25IntegrativemodelsIntegrativesupervisionmodelsrelyonseveraltheoriesandtechniques(Haynesetal.,2003).AgoodexampleofthesemodelsisBernard’sdiscriminationmodeldevelopedbyBernard(1979)andrevisedbyBernardandGoodyear(2009).Thismodelstatesthattherearesixfociofsupervision.Thefirstthreearefoci,whichareintervention,conceptualizationandpersonalizationwhilethelastthreeareroles,whichareteacher,counselorandconsultant.Accordingtothemodel,thesupervisorrespondsusingoneoftheninewaysresultingfromthethreerolesxthethreefoci.Anothermodelisthesystemsapproachmodel(Holloway,1995)whicharguesthatthesupervisorandemployeehaveamutuallyinvolvingrelationshipwithsevendimensions.Thesearesupervisionfunctions,supervisiontasks,employee,trainee,supervisor,andtheinstitution(MimuraandGriffiths,2003).2.26SupervisorytasksAsupervisoryhasdifferenttaskstoconductdependingontheexactworkplacesetting.However,ingeneral,theybeginbyfamiliarizingthemselveswiththecurrentjobdescriptionsoftheemployees.Asupervisorcannotbeabletoconductanytaskwithoutbeingabletounderstandtherequirementsofeachoftheemployee’spositions.Minoetal.(1999)arguesthattherearefourmajorsupervisorytasks.Thesearecoaching,mentoring,advocatingfortheorganizationandadvocatingfortheemployee.2.27CoachingAsacoach,thesupervisorisinvolvedinworkingwiththeemployeestoestablishgoals,plansandtimelinesforaccomplishmentoftasks.Thesupervisorthusprovidesongoingsupportandguidancefortheemployeestocompletetheirtaskswithease.Thesupervisorhelpstodemystifyjobtasks,whichmaymakeanemployee,feelthattheyareunabletomeetthegoalsofthepositiontheyarein.Ascoaches,supervisorsalsotakeintoconsiderationotheraspectsofemployeelifesuchastraining,utilizationofpersonalstrengthsandweaknesses.Themainthingisforthesupervisortoprovideeffectivesupervisionthatenablesemployeesmakebetterdecisionsandperformtheirtasksbetter.2.28MentoringAsamentor,asupervisorunderstandsthatanemployeeneedstohaveagoodwork-lifebalanceandtriestoupholdthat.Thesupervisorthusuniquelyprovidesadvicetoemployeesinvariousaspectsrelatingtotheirjobandlifeingeneral.Thesupervisormakestheemployeelookathimorherasamodelforpersonaldevelopmentanddirection.Thisaffirmstheage-oldphraseofleadingbyexample.2.29AdvocatingfortheorganizationAsupervisoristheorganization’schiefadvocatetotheemployees.Thesupervisorensuresthatemployeesconducttheirtaskswithutmostzealtoensurethattheymeettheirjobperformancestandardsandgoals.Thesupervisoralsoensurescompliancewithorganizationalpoliciesandprogramsthatcomefromthemanagement.Thoughemployeesmaybeconfusedorfrustratedbyactionsbyasupervisor,thereisneedtocheckemployeestoensuretheymeettheirexpectations.Thesupervisormustthusbestrictbuttactful.2.30AdvocatingforemployeesSupervisorsactasintermediariesbetweentheorganizationandtheemployees.Thusastheyadvocatefortheorganization,theyalsoneedtoadvocateforemployees.Employeerequeststothemanagementneedtobetakenintoconsideration.Thesupervisoralsoensuresfairnessandjusticeintheworkplaceinaspectssuchaspromotion.Thesupervisoralsoexplainssituationsfacingemployeestothemanagementtoensurethattheyarenotbeingtreatedunfairlyoragainsttheirwill(Manningetal.,1996).2.31OtherrolesApartfromthesefourmajorroles,supervisorsalsoplayotherrolesintheorganization.Oneisthattheyresolveemployeeconflictsandcomplaints.Here,thesupervisorhelpsemployeestoaddressandresolveanyworkplaceconcernstheymayhave.Thisincludesmediatingbetweenemployeesorbetweentheemployeeandthemanagement.Anotherroleistoapproverecordsandrequestsbystaffmembers.Supervisorsapproveallworkrelatedaspectsforemployeessuchasattendanceortimeoffrequests.2.32FrequencyofsupervisionForsupervisiontobeeffective,itneedstobeasregularaspossiblewithoutinvadingtheprivacyofemployees.Invasionofprivacyinvolvestoomuchclosesupervisionorregularmonitoringofemployeeemails,textsorotheraspects.Thefrequencyofsupervisionvariesfromoneorganizationtoanotherwithmostdeemingthatitdependsmajorlyontheemployee’sexperience.Newemployeesneedtobesupervisedmoreoftencomparedtomoreexperiencedones.Inaddition,juniorlevelemployeesneedtobesupervisedmoreoftenthanmanagersorotherseniorlevelemployees(Leighetal.,1999).2.33ConfidentialityandsupervisionConfidentialityisakeyissueinemployeesupervision.Supervisorsandemployeesneedtodefineaclearandmutualunderstandingoftheboundariesofconfidentialityinrespecttosupervisorytasks.Thiswillenableasafeandeffectiveworkingrelationshiptobedevelopedbetweenthesupervisorandtheemployee.Confidentialityinvolvesthesupervisorshowingtheemployeethattheymeanwhattheyaresayingandthattheyarewillingtofollowthroughonanyagreementstheymakewiththeemployee.Thesupervisormustalsodemonstratethattheyarenon-judgmentalandthatnothingcanmakethembreaktheconfidentialityagreement.Ontheotherhand,theemployeegainsthesupervisor’strustbybeingashonestandopenaspossibletothesupervisorinwork-relatedtasks.Insodoing,apositiveworkingrelationshipwillbebuiltfoundedontrustandthiswillfosteranewthinkingprocessanddevelopmentoflearning(Grzywaczetal.,2002).Intheday-to-dayrunningofsupervisorytasks,thesupervisormayneedtoinvolveotherindividuals.Whenthisisrequired,thesupervisorneedstoprotectandhonortheconfidentialityagreementwiththeemployee.Thisisdonebyrequestingtheemployeetoallowthemtoincludeanotherindividualandexplainingtotheemployeewhyitmaybenecessarytoinvolveanotherindividual.Whenconsentisgivenbytheemployeetoinvolveothers,thesupervisorshouldonlydivulgetheminimuminformationrequiredbytheotherindividualthatallowsthemtoprovidetheirsupportinthedevelopingsituation.2.34AdvantagesofsupervisorysupportManyorganizationsemphasizetheimportantofsupervisorysupportforemployeesbecauseofitsadvantages.Amongthelargestadvantagesisitspositiveeffectonworkermoraleandjobsatisfaction.Supportivesupervisionhelpstoreduceoccupationalstress,whichhelpsemployeestohandletheiropportunitiesthusreducingtheinfluenceofotherfactorsthataffectjobperformanceorleadtolessthansatisfactoryproductsorservicestoclientsorcustomers.AccordingtoKadushin(1992),thesupportivesupervisionhelpstopreventpotentiallystressfulsituationsthusremovesemployeesfromstressandreducesstressontheworker.Thishelpsemployeestoadjusttotheworkenvironmentandincreasesmoraleandjobsatisfaction.Supportivesupervisionalsoenhancescommunicationintheworkplaceandcreatesasenseofcohesiveness.Thisisbecausetheemployeesfeelthesupervisoristheretohelpratherthandiscourageorcriticize.Therefore,workerswillbeabletotakeresponsibilityfortheirownactionsandbewillingtojustifythem.Thisgreatlyimprovesorganizationalcommunication.Anotheradvantageofsupportivesupervisionisthatitallowsforsharingofideasandresourcesintheworkplace.Sincetheemployeesseethesupervisorasmoreofacollaboratorthanfoe,theyareencouragedtogivetheirideastowardsthesuccessofthecompanyororganization.Supportivesupervisionalsohelpstoensurethatthecompanystickswithintheoutlinedpoliciesandprocedures.Consequently,offosteringcommunicationbetweenmembersofstaffandsupervisors,theemployeeswillbemorelikelytofollowcompanypoliciesandproceduressincetheyareabletorelatecloselytothem.Supportivesupervisionalsohasotheradvantagessuchasfosteringprofessionalandpersonaldevelopmentthatcomesfrommotivationofemployees,reducedoccupationalburnoutbecauseofemployeeshavingflexibleworkschedules,qualityserviceandproductstoclientsandconsumers,aswellasimprovingorganizationalculturesincestafffeeltheyaresupported.Supportivesupervisioncontributedmajorlytoensuringorganizationsprovideshighqualityservicesandproductsaswellasensuringconsistentoutcomesbyemployees.2.35EffectivesupervisionEffectivesupervisionisacriticalaspectforanyorganizationlookingforwardtodeveloppositiveoutcomesforitsemployees.Asaresult,organizationsthereforeneedtomakeapositiveandunambiguouscommitmenttowardshavingastrongsupervisionculturefortheiremployees.Thiscanbeachievedthroughdevelopingaclearpolicyonsupervisionaswellasencouragingpracticethatsupportsthispolicy.Anotherwayofachievingthisistohaveeffectivetrainingforitssupervisorsandhavingstrongleadsthroughtheseniormanagementteam.Anotherimportantwayofachievingeffectivesupervisionistoensurerealisticperformanceobjectivesaresetwhicharemonitoredregularlytocheckcompliance.Effectivesupervisionhelpsgreatlytoreduceworkplacestress.Thisisbecauseamongitsmajoradvantagesisthatithelpsineffectiveworkloadmanagement.Byhavingclearandrealisticperformanceobjectives,theorganizationisabletoknowwhatisexpectedfromeachemployeeandthusplanfortheachievementoftheseobjectivesthrougheffectivemanagementofeachemployee’sworkload.Further,effectivesupervisioncontributestothewell-beingofemployeesbyreducingworkplacestresslevelswhicharepositivelycorrelatedwithincreasedemployeeproductivityandnegativelycorrelatedwithunplannedemployeeturnover,reducedproductivityandemployeewell-being(ReubenandChiba,2017).Inadditiontotheforegoing,effectivesupervisionalsohelpstoensuresufficientplanningofemployeetasksaswellasotherimportantconsiderationsfortheorganization.Byembeddingeffectivesupervisiontoorganizationalculture,theorganizationisabletoensureitcompetentlymonitorsemployeeperformanceandthusplansaheadbasedonthis.2.36TherelationshipbetweenstressandsupervisionOccupationalstressisoftenassociatedwithemployeesnotbeingabletocopewithcertainsituationsintheirworkplace(Gnilkaetal.,2012).Thesemayincludestrictsupervision.Whenanemployeeisnotabletocopewiththesupervisionlevelintheorganization,theexperiencestress,whichmayleadtothenegativeaspects,mentionedearlier.Bordin(1979)alsostatedthatwhensupervisorsareunabletomotivatetheiremployees,thestrengthoftheworkingallianceisgreatlycompromisedmakingitharderforemployeestodischargetheirduties.Bordin(1983)alsoaddsthatthesupervisor’sattitudecreatespersonaldevelopmentinthesuperviseewhichhelpsthemtocopewiththeworkplaceandthusreducesoccupationalstress.Italsohelpsthemtoappraisetheirworkdemandsandwhethertheyhavethenecessaryresourcesandabilitytocope.Thusithelpsthemtoexerciseemotional,socialandphysicalcontrolwhicheffectivelypreventsthenegativepsychologicaloutcomesthatareassociatedwithstress(Finneyetal.,2013).2.37TheimpactofleadershiponstressOvertheyears,organizationshavemovedfromcharismaticleadershiptointroducesharedordistributedleadershipwithmoreethicalvaluessuchasauthenticity,fairleadershipandethicsbeingemphasized.Thisisbecausetheorganizationshaveunderstoodthenegativeeffectsofpoorleadership,whichincludeabusivesupervision,highemployeeturnover,poorjobperformance,andpassive-avoidanceleadership.Itisestimatedthatorganizationsallovertheworldspendatotalor36to60billionUSdollarseveryyearonleadershipdevelopmentactivities(Leighetal.,1999).Thisindicatesthattheyarebeginningtounderstandthatleadershipisacriticalcomponentinorganizationalsuccessandinreducingoccupationalstress.Effectiveleadershiphelpstobuildtherightpsychosocialworkenvironmentthatfostersemployeestoutilizetheirabilitytowardsthesuccessoftheorganization.Poorleadershipontheotherhandcreatespoorsupervisionwhichcreatesoccupationalstressontheemployees(BlixandLee,1991).2.38QualitiesofeffectiveleadershipVirtuallyanyonewhohasworkedinanytypeofcapacity(whichistosaymostpeople)canreadilytestifyconcerningtheimportanceofthequalityofleadershipintheworkplace.Effectiveleaderscanmakethedifferencebetweenorganizationalsuccessandfailurebyvirtueoftheireffectsoftheirleadershipontheiremployeesandtheincidenceofoccupationalstressthatresults.AstudybyReubenandChiba(2017)foundthatthereisaninextricablerelationshipbetweeneffectiveleadershipandemployeewell-being.Basedonthesefindings,ReubenandChina(2017,p.37)concludethat,“Effectiveleadershipstylesarethereforerequiredtodevelophigh-qualityworkenvironmentsthatareconducivetoworkers\\\'well-beingandwhichultimatelycontributetoachievingorganizationalgoals.”Effectiveleadershipischaracterizedbyvariousqualities.Firstisself-confidencewheretheleaderisabletotakeonanynewprojectsorroles,whichmaybeoutsidetheirnormalareaofcomfortandbelievethattheyareabletoworkreallywell.Thesecondqualityisgoodmorals.Effectiveleadersleadbyexamplemeaningthattheydefendtheirownbeliefsandideals,whicharebasedontheorganization’spoliciesandprocedures.Thirdisdecisiveness,whichmeansthattheleaderisabletoweighalltheavailableoptionstomakeacleardecision.Fourthisflexibility,whichmeansthattheleaderisabletochangetheirscheduleasprioritiesoftaskschangeorasnewtaskscomein.Anotherimportantqualityisdependability,whichmeansthattheemployeesareabletodependontheleaderorsupervisortotakecareofanyproblemsorconflictsthatarise.Patientisalsoanimportantqualitysincetheleaderneedstobeabletolistencarefullytoallthings.Patienceshouldbecoupledwithfairnessorjusticemeaningthattheleadershouldlistentobothsidesofanystoryorissuebeforegivingtheirjudgmentordecision.Aneffectiveleadershouldalsobearisk-takermeaningtheyshouldbeabletochallengetheprocessorsystembyfindinginnovativewaysfortheorganizationtochange,improveandgrowandimprove.2.39RoleofasupervisorintheworkplaceSupervisorshavevariousrolesandresponsibilitiestoplayintheworkplace.Oneisdiscipline.Supervisorsareexpectedtoensurethatstaffmemberssticktocompanypoliciesandproceduresatalltimes.Thisensuresthatemployeesarekeptfocusedonproductiveactivitiesandmaintainsalevelfieldforallemployees.Thesupervisoralsohasaroleinemployeedevelopmentwheretheyareexpectedtohelpemployeesbuildskillsinareaswheretheyarelacking.Thishelpstodevelopandimprovetheperformanceofwork.Supervisorsarealsoexpectedtobepeacemakers.Amongtheirkeyrolesistoresolveworkplaceconflictsinanamicableandfairmanner.Theyneedtolistentobothsidesofthestorytodeterminewhoisrightandfindanamicablewaytoresolvetheconflict.Theconflictshouldberesolvedinaway,whichtheinvolvedpartiesunderstand.Thesupervisoralsoplaysaroleinensuringthattheorganization’semployeesareproductivebyensuringtheyhavetherightskillsandresourcestoperformtheirduties.Theyalsoidentifyareasfortrainingofemployeesandincertainsituationsconductthetrainingbythemselves.2.40TheadverseeffectsofworkplaceambiguityItisdifficulttoquantifytheadverseeffectsofambiguityintheworkplaceincreatingstress,butitisclearthatemployeeswantandneedtimelyandaccurateguidanceconcerningwhatisexpectedofthemaswellastheiroverallroleincontributingtoachievinglargerorganizationalgoals.Whentheseissuesareunclear,employeescanexperienceelevatedstresslevels(Kirk-BrownandWallace,2009).Indeed,Osibanjo,andSalau(2016)emphasizethatroleambiguitycanexacerbateworkplacestresslevels,andthisprocessisfurtherintensifiedwhenworkloadsareespeciallyheavy.Certainly,mostpeoplehavebeencompelledtoworkharderthannormalfromtimetotimedependingontheexigenciesoftheirorganizationalneeds,butworkingharderthannormalandworkingharderthannormalwithoutdirectionareentirelydifferentissues.Asaresult,itisreasonabletosuggestthattheextenttowhichroleambiguityisallowedtopersistwillbetheextenttowhichoccupationalstresslevelsarecorrespondinglyincreased.Jobstressorssuchasroleambiguityhavebeenstudiedinawidearrayofculturalsettingsandthefollowingvariableshavebeenmostfrequentlyidentifiedasbeingpositivelycorrelatedwithroleambiguity:(1)tensionandfatigue,(2)absenteeism,(3)leavingthejobandanxiety,and(4)bothpsychologicalandphysicalstrain(El-KotandBurke,2011).Inaddition,roleambiguityhasalsobeenpositivelycorrelatedwith:(1)roleconflict:task/skillvariety,(2)locusofcontrol,(3)education,and(4)propensitytoleavetheorganization(El-KotandBurke,2011).Thevariablesthathavebeenidentifiedasbeingmostfrequentlynegativelycorrelatedwithroleambiguityinclude:(1)jobsatisfaction,(b)physicalwithdrawal,(3)supervisorysatisfaction,(4)jobperformance,(5)jobinvolvement,(6)decisionmaking,(7)jobinvolvement/engagement,(8)organizationalcommitment,(9)toleranceforconflictandgroupcohesion,and(10)reportedinfluence(El-KotandBurke,2011).Takentogether,itisapparentthatambiguityintheworkplacecanhaveprofoundimplicationsforoccupationalstresslevels,butthereareothervariablesinvolvedthatmakedeterminingwhichfactorsaremostoperativeintheprocessespeciallycomplex.Forexample,otherresearchershaveidentifiedsignificantnegativecorrelationsbetweenroleambiguityandthefollowingvariables:(1)participation,(2)taskidentity,(3)feedback,(4)jobsatisfactionacrosssub-levels,and(5)commitmentandinvolvement.Finally,studieshavealsoshownthatroleconflictandroleambiguityareconsistentlycorrelatedEl-KotandBurke,2011).Finally,theantecedentsofroleambiguityincludethefollowing:(1)workinginorganizationalboundaryroles,(2)beingaserviceemployee,(3)objectiverolerequirementsoftheemployee,(4)limitedparticipationindecisionmaking,(5)limiteduseofgoalsettingbysupervisors,(6)numberofsubordinates,and(7)levelofformalizationintheorganization(El-KotandBurke,2011).Therefore,identifyingthemostsalientvariablesthatcreateheightenedworkplaceambiguitylevelsandimplementinginterventionsthatarespecificallydesignedtoamelioratethemtothemaximumextentpossiblehelpstocreateabalancebetweentheemployees’behavioralstrainsandproductivebehaviors.Thisisbecauseithelpstopreventcounterproductiveworkplacebehavior,whichmaybedirectedbythesupervisor.Italsohelpstoremovepsychologicalstrainswhichmayleadtoissuessuchasanger,anxiety,frustration,depression,intentiontoquit,jobdissatisfaction,cynicism,exhaustionandreductioninprofessionalefficacy.Theseworkplaceambiguityvariablesincluderoleambiguity,avoidanceofuncertainty,ortheauthoritarianleadershipstyle.Theyaffecttheperceivedjobcontrolthushelpingtomoderatelypreventworkplacestress.Thebesthumanresourcesstrategyforaddressingroleambiguityintheworkplaceistoensurethatemployees’jobdescriptionsactuallyreflecttheworktheydoratherthansomeabstractversionofwhatanorganizationbelievestheyshouldbedoing.AsBamber(2011,p.59)pointsout,“Oneofthemainwaysinwhichanemployee’srolesandresponsibilitiesaremadeclearatworkisthroughtheirjobdescription.”Insomecases,developingatimelyandaccuratejobdescriptionmayrequireadeskaudittoensurethatalltasksandresponsibilitiesthatarebeinghandledbyworkersareincludedintheirjobdescriptions(Bamber,2011).2.41Supervisor-TheimportanceoffeedbackTheresearchtodateconcerningtheimportanceofsupervisoryfeedbackconfirmsthatthisprocessisessentialformitigatingroleambiguityintheworkplaceandreducingoccupationalstresslevels.Asnotedabove,however,therearenumerousvariablesthatcanexacerbateroleambiguity,butsupervisoryfeedbackcanserveasausefulwaytoaddressmanyofthemeithersimultaneouslyorbasedonpriorityoftheseverityofthestressorlevels(ClarkeandCooper,2004).Fromoneperspective,supervisoryfeedbackrepresentsatypeofsocialsupportintheworkplacethathasbeenfoundtobeanessentialcomponentofjobsatisfactionandloweroccupationalstresslevels(ClarkeandCooper,2004).Inthisregard,ClarkeandCooper(2004,p.24)reportthat,“Inanorganizationalsetting,socialsupportisoftenprovidedbyimmediatecolleaguesandfirst-linesupervisors;supervisorysupportisdefinedasthedegreeofconsiderationexpressedbytheimmediatesupervisorforthesubordinatesandco-workersupportasthedegreeofconsiderationexpressedbyco-workers.”ResearchbyClarkeandCooper(2004,p.24)identifiedfourdifferenttypesofsocialsupportinanorganizationcontextasfollows:(1)instrumentalsupport(i.e.,givingdirecthelp,oftenofapracticalnature);(2)emotionalsupport(i.e.,showinginterestin,understandingof,caringforandsympathywithaperson’sdifficulties);(3)informationalsupport(i.e.,givingthepersoninformationthatmayhelphimorherdealwithproblems);and(4)appraisalsupport(i.e.,providingfeedbackabouttheperson’sfunctioningthatmayenhancehisorherself-esteem).Therefore,ongoingandmeaningfulfeedbackfromsupervisorsandfromcoworkersisimportantbecauseitfosterscommunicationwithintheorganizationandservesasaformofsocialsupport.Inaddition,timelysupervisoryfeedbackhelpstocreateworkingrelationshipsbetweenthesupervisorsandemployeessincethelatterfeelthattheyareinvolvedinthedecision-makingprocessandtheirviewsarevalued.Absentsuchfeedback,employeesareleftwonderingiftheyaresatisfyingand/orexceedingtheirperformanceobjectivesandachievingorganizationalgoals.Theseoutcomesalsodirectlycontributetoworkplaceambiguitywhichhasbeenshowntobeanantecedentofoccupationalstresstimeandagain.Thefeedbackchannelisanimportantwayofincreasingproductivityandperformanceofemployeesintheworkplace.Italsoactsasamotivatingfactorforemployeessinceitisinclusiveratherthanalienatingfortheemployees.Basedontheiranalysisofthevariousantecedentsofoccupationalstress,MijakoskiandKaradzinska-Bislimovska(2015,p.180)concludethat,“Thepresenceofproperfeedback,adequatesupervisorandcoworkersupport,aswellasappropriateteamwork,leadstohighjobengagementandlowlevelofdepersonalization,whiletheirabsenceincreasesthelevelofcynicalattitudetowardswork.”Moreover,timelyandhonestsupervisoryfeedbackisalsoacrucialaspectofperformancemanagementsinceitmaintainsanopenandhonestrelationshipbetweenthesupervisorandemployeethusthetwo-waydialoguewillenableperformanceappraisalstobeconductedhonestlyandthusimprovetheabilityoftheemployeestomeettheexpectationsofthecompanyororganization.2.42PreventionandfightingwithstressatworkGivenitsdocumentedexorbitanteconomiccostsandtheenormoushumantollthatisexactedbythecondition,thepreventionofworkplacestressisanimportantconsiderationforallorganizations.AsOsibanjoandSalau(2016,p.261)pointout,“Highlevelsofworkplacestresscanbecomeharmfulforindividualemployeesandtheorganizationasawhole.Hence,toenhancecorporateimageandachievecompetitiveadvantage,stressmanagementandcopingstrategiesbecomeimperative.”Occupationalstresscanbepreventedorminimizedbyintroducingeducationandtrainingprogramsforemployeestounderstandandrelatetooccupationalstress.Itcanalsobepreventedoramelioratedbychangingtheorganization’spoliciesandprocedurestoensurethatallrisksofoccupationalstressaremitigatedandsourcesofstresseliminated.Anotherwayofpreventingoccupationalstressistoestablishemployeeassistanceprogramstosupportemployeesundergoingoccupationalstress(RandallandBuys,2013).Anin-depthstudyofoccupationalstressandefficaciousinterventionsbyRichardsonandRothstein(2008,p.69)definedjobstressas“asituationwhereinjob-relatedfactorsinteractwiththeworkertochangehisorherpsychologicaland/orphysiologicalconditionsuchthatthepersonisforcedtodeviatefromnormalfunctioning.”Thereisaninherentnotioncontainedinthisdefinitionthatwork-relatedstressorsrepresenttheoverarchingsourceofstressandthatindividualresponsestoelevatedwork-relatedstresscanmanifestinpsychological,physiological,oracombinationoftheseoutcomes(RichardsonandRothstein,2008).Measuringtheefficacyofstressmanagementinterventionsisaccomplishedindifferentwaysdependingonthefocusoftheintervention.Insomecases,researchershaveevaluatedtheeffectivenessofstressmanagementinterventionsbasedontheireffectonquantifiableoutcomessuchasemployeeproductivitylevels,absenteeismrates,bloodpressurelevelsandweightgainorloss(RichardsonandRothstein,2008).Inothercases,researchershaveevaluatedtheeffectivenessofstressmanagementinterventionsusingmoresubjectivecriteriasuchasemployeeengagement,moraleorjobsatisfactionlevels.Regardlessoftheevaluationstrategythatisused,thereremainsasignificantamountofcontroversyconcerningwhichstressmanagementinterventionsaremosteffectiveinvarioussituationsandwhy(RichardsonandRothstein,2008).Varioustypesofstressmanagementinterventionseitherseektomodifywork-relatedstressorfactors,provideemployeeswithassistanceandsupportinmitigatingtheadverseeffectsofsuchstressors,oracombinationofthesestrategies(RichardsonandRothestein,2008).Basedonaconceptualframeworkdevelopedforthedesign,implementation,andevaluationofstressmanagementinterventions,interventionscanbedesignedtoaddressthreemainpointsinthestresscycle:(1)theintensityofstressorsintheworkplace,(2)theemployee’sappraisalofstressfulsituations,or(3)theemployee’sabilitytocopewiththeoutcomes(RichardsonandRothstein,2008p.70).Theconstituentelementsofstressmanagementprogramsdifferbuttheygenerallyincludeinterventionsthatcanbecategorizedasprimary,secondaryortertiaryinitiativesasdescribedbelow:2.42.1Primaryinterventions:Thesetypesofstressmanagementinterventionsseektochangethemainsourcesofjob-relatedstress.Inthisregard,RichardsonandRothstein(2011,p.70)reportthat,“Examplesofprimarypreventionprogramsincluderedesigningjobstomodifyworkplacestressors,increasingworkers’decision-makingauthorityorprovidingcoworkersupportgroups.”Inotherwords,primaryinterventionsarethoseintendedtoseekoutthesourceofjob-relatedstressand“niptheminthebud”beforetheycanexactastress-relatedtollonworkers.Forinstance,accordingtoBamber(2011,p.42),“.Primarylevelinterventionsareaimedatchangingtheworkenvironmentitselftoreduceoreliminatethecauseofthestressatitssource.”Insomecases,though,changingtheworkenvironmentinsubstantivewaysisnotfeasibleduetothetypesofoccupationsthatareinvolved(e.g.,acute-carenurses,combatinfantrytroops,firefighters,amongothers)orduetotheexpensethatmaybeinvolved(Bamber,2011).Inthesetypesofcases,researchersbelievethatsecondaryinterventionsaremoreappropriateandeffectiveataddressingjob-relatedstressasdiscussedfurtherbelow.2.42.2Secondaryinterventions:Thesetypesofstressmanagementinterventionsaredesignedtominimizetheseverityofstresssymptomsbeforetheycancausemoreserioushealthissueswithworkers(RichardsonandRothstein,2011,p.70).Secondarylevelinterventionsarealsodesignedtoeducateworkersconcerningvarioustypesofcopingstrategiesorskillsthatcanserveasbuffersagainststressfulworkplaceenvironmentsandprovidethemwiththetoolstheyneedtodeveloptheresiliencetheyneedtorespondinhealthierwaystojob-relatedstressors(Bamber,2011).AccordingtoSidle(2008,p.111),“Cognitive-behavioralapproachesaresecondaryinterventionsthathelpemployeesrethinktheirbeliefsaboutchallengingsituations.Specifically,individualslearntorecognizehowtheirpessimisticandoftendistortedthoughtsofgloomanddoomleadtostress.Next,theylearntoreplacetheiroverlypessimisticthinkingwithmorerealisticormoreoptimisticthinking.”2.42.3Tertiaryinterventions:Thesetypesofstressmanagementinterventionssuchastheaforementionedemployeeassistanceprogramsareintendedtotreatworkers’stress-relatedhealthproblemswithappropriatementalhealthcarepractitioners(RichardsonandRothstein,2008p.70).AccordingtoBamber(2011,p.42),“Tertiarylevelinterventionsareappropriatewhensecondarylevelinterventionsareineffectiveandtheindividualisexperiencingstresssyndromeswhichareimpactingontheircapacitytobeproductiveintheworksetting,oreventoremainatwork.”Althoughprimaryandtertiaryinterventionsmaybemostappropriateincertaincircumstances,secondaryinterventionsarethemostcommonlyusedworkplacestressmanagementprogramsusedatpresent,andthesetypesofinterventionsaretypicallytargetedathelpingindividualemployeesdevelopimprovedmethodsformanagingandcopingwithjob-relatedstressors.Someofthemostpopularsecondaryinterventionsformanagingandcopingwithoccupationalstressincludevariouscognitive-behavioralskillstrainingthateducateworkersconcerningtheeffectsoftheirthinkingontheirstresslevels,deep-breathingexercises,meditation,relaxation,physicalfitnessexercises,timemanagementskills,maintainingadailyjournalandsettinggoals,or,hereagain,acombinationofthesestrategies(RichardsonandRothstein,2008).AccordingtoRichardsonandRothstein,cognitive-behavioralskillstrainingcanbeanespeciallyefficaciousandcost-effectiveinterventionforjob-relatedstress.Forexample,theseresearchersreportthat,“Meditation,relaxation,anddeep-breathinginterventionsaredesignedtoenableemployeestoreduceadversereactionstostressesbybringingaboutaphysicaland/ormentalstatethatisthephysiologicaloppositeofstress”(RichardsonandRothstein,2008p.70).Althoughtheresearchtodateindicatesthatprimaryandsecondarylevelstressmanagementinterventionscanbeeffectiveinresolvingmildtomoderatelevelsofstress,thesestrategiesmaybelessefficaciousintreatingmoresevereanddebilitatingstresslevelsthatarelinkedwithoccupationalstress(Bamber,2011).Moreover,themoresevereanddebilitatinglevelsofstressassociatedwithoccupationalstresscanaffectworkers’abilitytoperformtheirjobsoreventocontinuetheiremployment.Inthesetypesofcases,evidence-basedtertiarylevelinterventionsareneededtoassistworkersinmanagingtheirstresslevels(Bamber,2011).Whileformaltertiaryinterventionsareusuallyprovidedbyprimarycareandmentalhealthpractitioners,thereareseveralself-helpmethodsavailablethatcanbeusedinconjunctionwiththeseinterventions.Forexample,beyondtheforegoing,therearesomeother,relativelysimplestepsthatemployeescantaketomitigatetheeffectsofjob-relatedstress.Inmanycases,thesestepscanbeappliedintheworkplaceasneeded.Inthisregard,Frandsen(2010,p.61)suggeststhatpeoplewhoareexperiencingoccupationalstressshouldemployvariousself-caremeasures,includingthefollowing:·Starteachdaywitharelaxingritualsuchas15minutesformeditating,journaling,stretching,orreadingsomethinginspirational;·Adopthealthyeating,exercising,andsleepinghabits;·Establishboundariestoavoidoverextending;·Takeadailybreakandsetasidetimetocompletelydisconnect;·Nourishself-creativitybychoosingfunactivitiesthathavenothingtodowithwork;and,·Learntomanagestress.Althoughthesestraightforwardstressmanagementinterventionsallprovidesomedegreeofbenefits,theresearchtodateindicatesthatcognitive-behavioralbasedinterventionsprovideconsistentlygreatereffectscomparedtoothertypesofinterventions.Interestingly,though,totheextentthatadditionaltreatmentelementsareaddedtothecognitive-behavioralinterventionswastheextenttowhichtheefficacyoftheseinterventionswasreduced(RichardsonandRothstein,2008).Thesefindingssuggestthatthereisno“one-size-fits-all”stressmanagementinterventionstrategythatworksequallywellinallcircumstancesbutratherreinforcestheneedforindividualizedtreatmentstrategiesthatarebasedontheuniqueneedsofthetargetedemployees.Inaddition,anumberofevidence-basedinterventionshavebeendevelopedthatarespecificallydesignedtohelppreventtheonsetofoccupationalstressandbettermanagetheconditionifitdoesariseamonghelpingprofessionalswheretheworkplaceenvironmentcannotbeeasilychangedsuchasacutecarenursesassetforthinTable6below.Table6Descriptionofevidence-basedinterventionsforworkplacestressSourceDescriptionofinterventionCohen-Katzetal.(2005)Thisinterventionconsistedofan8-weekmindfulness-basedstressreductionprogramthatwasgearedtowardsimprovingrelaxation,self-care,workandfamilyrelationshipsaswellasidentifyingbetterwaysofdealingwithdifficultemotionsintheworkplace.Hayesetal.(2005)Interventionsincludedamentoringprogramdesignedtosupportminoritynursesenteringoncology;oncologynursinggrandrounds,spiritrounds,andreflectivepracticerounds;narrativesforindividualreflectiononpractice;ambulatorynursingretreatsforreflectionandrenewal;andindividualmeetingswithapsychiatricclinicalnursespecialistfornewgraduates.Adams&Putrino(2010)Anexpressivewritingworkshopencouragedself-carebypresentingparticipantswithinformationonwaystogroundexpressivewritingandparticipateinexpressivewritingexercises.Bauer-Wu(2005)Retreatswereheldoutsidetheworksettingwithparticipants’choiceoffourexperientialbreak-outsessions:“KeepingtheHope,”whichusedart,imagery,andstorytorestorehopefulnessasaself-carepractice;“ComingHometoYourBody,”whichusedtherapeuticmovement;“BeingPeace,”whichusedmindfulnessmeditationtofosterpeaceandbalanceineverydaylife;and“WhatMattersMost,”whichfosteredself-reflectionandexpressionthroughcollageandwriting.Retreatsalsoincludedfreeafternoontimewiththeopportunityforallparticipantstoreceiveamassage;aneveningofliveentertainmentwithsinging,dancing,andlaughing;andamorningYogaclassortheoptiontotakeawalkorsleepin.Lambert&Steward(2007)Theovernightretreatbeganwithdinnerandaneveningoffunandlaughterusingroomandtableassignmentstopairstaffthatnormallydonotinteract.Thiswasfollowedbyafulldayofteambuildingfacilitatedbyanexpert.Topicsincludedunderstandingteamdynamics,personalbehaviorstyles,communicationwithothers,andcreatingsafeenvironmentsthatfostercandidcommunication.LeBlancetal.(2007)Theinterventionincludedastart-upprogramthatwasfollowedby3-hourprogramsdeliveredonamonthlybasisforaperiodof6monthswithanintroductionandquestionnaireonworksituations,communication,andfeedback.Inaddition,programtopicsincludedbuildingsocialsupport,balancingjob-relatedinvestmentsandoutcomes,solvingproblemsthroughteamactionplanning,andidentifyingpotentialproblemsandsolutionsfordealingwithchange.Programcounselorsmetwithparticipantspriortotheprogramtogatherinformationontheorganization’sstructuresandpoliciesaswellasmanagement’sperceptionofthemainsourceofjobstress.Medlandetal.(2004)Day-longretreatsheldawayfromtheclinicalareasincludedinteractiveandinformalpresentationsonwellness,bereavement,developingstressmanagementskillssuchasrelaxation,journaling,cultivatingteameffectiveness,andart-makingactivities.Participantsalsoviewedavideotapeonpositivemanagementphilosophyanddiscussedaframeworkforincorporatingstressmanagementandself-careintopractice.Practicechangestodecreaseburnoutandincreaseongoingfocusonstaffsupportatthefacilitywereimplementedbasedonideasgenerated.Source:SummarizedandadaptedfromHenry(2014,p.212)Whilesomeoccupationsareinherentlymorestressful,otherauthoritieshavealsoevaluatedtheefficacyofstressmanagementinterventionstoidentifythosethatworkbestunderdifferentcircumstanceswithotheroccupationsaswell.ArecapitulationandsummaryofthesestudiesareprovidedinTable7below.Table7RecapitulationandsummaryoftheefficacyofvariousstressmanagementinterventionsSourceMethodResultsKim,JH(2007)Meta-analysisof46experimentalstudies.Thestudieswereclassifiedaccordingtothesamplecharacteristics,thetypesandmethodsoftheinterventions,andthetypesofoutcomevariables.Sixinterventiontypesweredistinguished:(1)cognitive-behavioralintervention(CBT),(2)relaxationtechniques(RT),(3)exercise(EX),(4)multimodalprograms1and2(MT1,2),and(5)organizationfocusedinterventions(OTs).Effectsizeswerecalculatedfortheoutcomecategoriesacrossinterventiontypes:psychosocialoutcome,behavioral-personalresources,physiologic,andorganizationaloutcome.Theresultsofthisstudyshowedthatindividualworker-focusedinterventions(ITs)weremoreeffectivethanOTs.Asmallbutsignificantoveralleffectwasfound.AmoderateeffectwasfoundforRT,andsmalleffectswerefoundforotherITs.TheeffectsizeforOTswasthesmallest.TheinterventionsinvolvingCBTandRTappearedtobethepreferredmeansofreducingworker\\\'spsycho-socialandorganizationaloutcomes.Withregardtophysiologicoutcomes,RTappearedtobemosteffective.CBTappearedtobemosteffectiveinreducingpsycho-socialoutcomes.TheeffectsofOTwerenon-significant,exceptforthepsycho-socialoutcomes.Basedonthesefindings,theauthorconcludedthatallofthesestressmanagementinterventionsareeffective,butthatinterventionsinvolvingRTandcognitive-behavioraltherapyaremoreeffectivethanothertypes.Sidle(2008)Systematicliteraturereviewofcurrentbestpracticesinstressmanagementinterventions.Eventhoughtheyaremoreeffectivethanotherstressmanagementinterventions,managersmayconsiderthecognitive-behavioraltechniquesmorechallengingthanotherapproachestoimplement.Typically,cognitive-behavioralinterventionsrequirethehiringofaprofessionaltoleadagroupsession.Consequently,managersmaygravitatetowardinterventionsthatareeasiertoimplementandrequireasmallerinvestmentofresources(e.g.,relaxationtraining);however,relaxationtraininginterventionsareoneofthemostpopularapproachestostressmanagement.Indeed,relaxationtechniquesareperceivedasoneoftheeasiestandleastexpensiveapproachestoimplement,primarilybecausetheycanbeself-taughtwithDVDsortheinternet.RichardsonandRothstein(2008)Meta-analysisof36experimentalstudiesrepresenting55differentstressmanagementinterventions.Thetotalsamplesizeofthemeta-analysiswas2,847;oftheparticipants,59%werefemale,meanagewas35.4,andaveragelengthofinterventionwas7.4weeks.Interventionswerecodedascognitive-behavioral,relaxation,organizational,multimodal,oralternative.Analysesbasedonthesesubgroupssuggestedthatinterventiontypeplayedamoderatingrole.Cognitive-behavioralprogramsconsistentlyproducedlargereffectsthanothertypesofinterventions,butifadditionaltreatmentcomponentswereaddedtheeffectwasreduced.Withinthesampleofstudies,relaxationinterventionsweremostfrequentlyused,andorganizationalinterventionscontinuedtobescarce.Effectswerebasedmainlyonpsychologicaloutcomevariables,asopposedtophysiologicalororganizationalmeasures.KowalskiandHarmon(2009)Mixed-methodactionresearchwasusedtoevaluatetheeffectivenessofamulti-yearcognitive-behavioralstressmanagementinterventioncalledtheWorkplaceStressandAggressionProjectwith3,000employeesat11pilotsitesinDepartmentofVeteransAffairs’tertiaryhealthcarefacilities.Thecognitive-behavioralstressmanagementinterventionsthatwereimplementedpursuanttothisinitiativewerefoundsuperiortotheothertypesofstressmanagementinterventionsthathadbeenusedbytheDepartmentofVeteransAffairsandtheresearchersconcludethatcognitive-behavioralinterventionsrepresentthebestapproachformitigatingandtreatingstressmanagementintheworkplace.Stoughetal.(2014)Citingtheenormouscostsandadverseeffectsofoccupationalstress,theseresearchersemphasizetheneedfortime-andcost-effectiveinterventionsthathaveprovenefficacyinmitigatingstresslevels.Tothisend,Stoughandhisassociatesreportthatnutritionalinterventions,especiallyusingBgroupvitamins,hasbecomeincreasinglyrecognizedasaviablestressmanagementintervention.Thestudywasarandomized,double-blind,placebo-controlled,parallel-groupsclinicaltrialinvolving200subjectsrandomizedtoacontrolgrouporreceiveBlackmoresExecutiveBStressFormulaorplacebodailyforaperiodof6months.ThisstudyexaminedtheeffectsofBgroupvitaminsonworkplacestressandmoodvariableswithasampleoffull-timeemployedolderadultswhosubjectivelyreportfeelingstressed.ThefindingsthatemergedfromthisstudyconfirmedthatefficaciousinterventionstargetedatreducingoccupationalstresslevelsusingdietarysupplementationwithBgroupvitaminsisaneconomicallyviableandsustainableintervention.CooperandCartwright(1999)Emphasizingtheurgencyoftheneed,theseresearchersuseacontentanalysisofrelevantstudiestoidentifyinterventionsthathavebeenproveneffectiveinreducingworkplacestresslevels.Basedontheiranalysisofthestressmanagementinterventionsdevelopedtodate,theseresearchersconcludethatalthoughindividualcounselingandstressmanagementtrainingcanserveasusefulcomponents,organization-wideinitiativesareneededtoensurethatworkplacestressorsareaddressedfromastructuralpointofview.ReidandRomans(2014)NotingapaucityoftimelyandrelevantstudiesconcerningoccupationalstresslevelsamongAfricanAmericansingeneralandAfricanAmericanmalesinparticular,theseresearchersevaluatedthedegreetowhichacculturationstrategy(traditionalistbeliefs,traditionalistbehavior,assimilationistbeliefsandassimilationistbehaviors)measuredbytheMeasurementofAcculturationStrategiesforPeopleofAfricanDescent(whichhasknownvalidityandreliability)affectsperceivedjobstressasmeasuredbytheJobStressSurveyinasampleof87employedAfricanAmericanprofessionals.Thefindingsthatresultedfromthisstudyfailedtoidentifyarelationshipbetweentraditionalacculturationstrategiesandoccupationalstresslevelssuggestingthatthesubjectswhousetraditionaliststrategiesmayeitherexperiencelessstressandmoresupport.Thisfindingreinforcestheimportanceoftraditionalacculturativecopingstrategyasaprotectiveresourceagainstperceivedstress.Individualswithtraditionalacculturativecopingstrategiesmaybemoreawareofandunderstandingofthreatstoself-concept,whichisalsoprotective.Basedonthesefindings,theresearchersalsoemphasizetheneedforadditionalstudiesusingrace-relatedvariables.Ekman(2015)Usingacasestudyapproach,thisresearchercitesthelackofrelevantresearchintooccupationalstresslevelsamonglawenforcementauthoritiesincludingthosetaskedwithjuvenilejustice.Thequalitativethree-phasecasestudyfocusedona16-hourmindfulnessmeditationstrategycalledCultivatingEmotionalBalancepilotstressmanagementinterventionfor50juvenilejusticeofficersintwosettingsinSanMateoCounty,California.Theresultsofthisstudyshowedthatempathytrainingusingvignettes,themindfulnessskillsincludingbreathingexercises,andthemotivationexerciseswereespeciallyeffectiveinreducingoccupationalstresslevelsamongthispopulationofjuvenilejusticeofficers.Theresultsofthisstudyindicatethatstrengtheningempathylevelsandprovidingjuvenilejusticeofficerswithtoolssuchasrelaxationandmeditationareespeciallyvaluableadditionstostressmanagementinterventions.RandallandBuys(2013)Usingasystematicreviewoftherelevantliterature,theseresearchersprovideacomprehensivebackgroundconcerningtheseverityofoccupationalstressandthetollitexactsonindividualsandorganizations.LiketheEkman(2015studyreviewedabove,thisstudyalsofocusedonmitigatingoccupationalstresslevelsamonglawenforcementofficers.Theseresearchersfoundthatstressmanagementthataredesignedtoaddressindividualfactorsbyprovidingemployeeswithtrainingandtoolssuchasteachingthemtocontrolstressresponsesusingbehavioralself-control,biofeedback,meditationandabdominalbreathing,progressivevisualizationandcognitiveprocessingareregardedaseffectiveevidence-basedtreatmentstrategies.Thesetypesofinterventionsaredesignedtominimizestressresponsesbycontrollingthought,physiologicalandbehavioralresponsestojob-relatedstressors.Likewise,interventionssuchascognitivebehavioraltherapyalsohavedemonstratedefficacy.McCratyetal.(2003)Thepurposeofthisrandomizedexperimentalstudywastoexaminetheeffectsofaworkplace-basedstressmanagementprogramonbloodpressure,emotionalhealth,andworkplace-relatedmeasuresin38hypertensiveemployeesofaglobalinformationtechnologycompany.Thesubjectswererandomlyassignedtoacontrolgroupwhichreceivednointerventionoragroupthatreceivedthestress-reductionintervention.Thetreatmentgroupparticipatedina16-hourprogram,whichincludedinstructioninpositiveemotionrefocusingandemotionalrestructuringtechniquesintendedtoreducesympatheticnervoussystemarousal,stress,andnegativeaffect,increasepositiveaffect,andimproveperformance.Learningandpracticeofthetechniqueswasenhancedbyheartratevariabilityfeedback,whichhelpedparticipantslearntoself-generatephysiologicalcoherence,abeneficialphysiologicmodethatareassociatedwithincreasedheartrhythmcoherence,physiologicentrainment,parasympatheticactivity,andvascularresonance.Bloodpressure,emotionalhealth,andworkplace-relatedmeasureswerealsoevaluatedassessedbeforeand3monthsaftertheprogram.Thisstudyfoundthatthetreatmentgroupexhibitedameanadjustedreductionof10.6mmHginsystolicbloodpressureandof6.3mmHgindiastolicbloodpressure.3-monthspost-intervention.Thereductioninsystolicbloodpressurewasregardedassignificantinrelationtothecontrolgroup.Thetreatmentgroupalsodemonstratedimprovementsinemotionalhealth,includingsignificantreductionsinstresssymptoms,depression,andglobalpsychologicaldistressandsignificantincreasesinpeacefulnessandpositiveoutlook.Reducedsystolicbloodpressurewascorrelatedwithreducedstresssymptoms.Inaddition,thetrainedemployeesdemonstratedsignificantincreasesinthework-relatedscalesofworkplacesatisfactionandvalueofcontribution.Theseresultsindicatethatabriefworkplacestressmanagementinterventioncanproduceclinicallysignificantreductionsinbloodpressureandimproveemotionalhealthamonghypertensiveemployees.Theimplicationsofthesefindingsarethatsuchinterventionsmayproduceahealthierandmoreproductiveworkforce,enhancingperformanceandreducinglossestotheorganizationresultingfromcognitivedecline,illness,andprematuremortality.KinmanandJones(2005)Thisstudyinvestigatedlayrepresentationsofworkstressusingsemi-structuredinterviewswith45individualsfromarangeofoccupations.Themeaningofoccupationalstress,itsantecedentsandoutcomes,andwaysbywhichitmaybemanagedwereexamined.Dominantfactorswereestablishedthroughtheuseofthematiccontentanalysis.Similaritiesanddifferenceswerefoundbetweenlayandprofessionaldiscoursesonworkstress.Theresultsthatemergedfromthisstudyindicatethatlayrepresentationsofoccupationalstressaremulti-faceted.Thereremainsalackofconsensus,however,concerninghowparticipantsinterpretedtheconcept:adiverserangeofpersonal,environmental,andsocietalfactorswashighlighted.Adifferent(andarguablymorecomplex)rangeofdefinitionsofjobstressandthemannerinwhichitimpactsonindividualswasrevealedthanhasbeenreportedinpreviousstudies.Thecausesofstressatworkwereperceivedasbeingpredominantlyorganizational,buttheimpactofstressontheemployeewasmoresalientthanorganizationaloutcomes.Secondaryandtertiarystressmanagementtechniqueswerethoughttobemoreeffectivethaninterventionsdesignedtopreventstressatwork.Intervieweeswithlinemanagementresponsibilityweremorelikelytoemphasizeindividualresponsibilityformanagingstress,mostothersmaintainedthattheindividualandtheorganizationareequallyresponsible.Saksviketal.(2003)Thestudyevaluatedsevendifferentindividualandorganizationalstressmanagementinterventions.DataforthestudywasobtainedfromasampleusedasapartoftheevaluationofaNorwegiannationalinterventionprogramcalled`HealthatWork.’ThestudywasconductedinthreeDifferententerprises(twofromthepublicsector(theNorwegianPostalServiceandamunicipality)andthelocalgovernmentofadistrictthatincludedamid-sizedNorwegiantownandonefromtheprivatesector(ashoppingmall).Interviewswereconductedin22postoffices,12organizationalunits(i.e.,carehomesandlocaladministrativeunits)ofaNorwegianmunicipality,andin10shopsinashoppingmall.Theinterviewstookplacebeforeandaftertheinterventions.Thefollowingkeyprocessfactorswereidentified:(1)theabilitytolearnfromfailureandtomotivateparticipants;(2)multi-levelparticipationandnegotiation,anddifferencesinorganizationalperception;(3)insightintotacitandinformalorganizationalbehavior;(4)clarificationofrolesandresponsibilities,especiallytheroleofmiddlemanagement;and(5)competingprojectsandreorganization.Basedontheresultsthatemergedfromthisambitiousstudy,theseresearchersconcludethatquantitativetechniquesaloneoftenfailtocapturethemagnitudeandthemeaningofaccomplishinginterventionswithinorganizations;however,quantitativeinvestigationsarecrucialindocumentingthesignificanceofimprovingoccupationalhealthinordertoinfluencethosestakeholderswhohavethepowertoinitiatechange.Gyllenstenetal.(2005)Thisqualitativestudyoftwomalesandthreefemalesexaminedtheattitudesoffinanceorganizationstowardsworkplacestressandstressinterventions.Semi-structuredinterviewswereusedandsevenindividuals,eachrepresentingtheirorganization,participatedinthestudy.InterpretativePhenomenologicalAnalysis(IPA)wasusedtoanalyzethedatathatresulted.ThegoalofIPAistoexploretheinsiderviewsoftheparticipants,andthiswastheaimofthecurrentstudy.InIPAitisassumedthatthereisanassociationbetweenwhattheparticipantsaysandwhattheythink.IPAseekstocapturethemeaningsoftheparticipant’saccounts,andthisisdonethroughaprocessofinterpretativeanalysis.AnadditionalbenefitofIPAisthatitfacilitatesthediscoveryofrarethemeswithintheareaofinvestigation.Theoverarchingfindingthatemergedfromthisstudywasthatsubjectsheldstrongviewsthatpeoplewhoseekcounselingforoccupationalstress,irrespectiveoftheseverityoftheirconditions,maybeperceivedashavingsometypeofmentalillness.Thestigmathatisassociatedwiththisperceptionisbelievedtopreventmanyemployeeswhoaremostinneedofefficaciousstressmanagementinterventionsfromseekingassistanceintheworkplace.Thefindingsunderscoretheneedforadditionaleducationofemployeestoensurethattheyrecognizethesignsandsymptomsofjob-relatedstressandfeelcomfortableinseekingassistancefortheseproblems.Bironetal.(2016)Theseresearchersusedanadaptedstudydesigntoevaluatetheeffectivenessofaninterventionexposureandtocreateanartificialcontrolandinterventiongroups.Thisstudyalsoincludedlongitudinaldata(i.e.,twoassessments)withaddedprocessmeasuresattime,twogatheredfromthreecomplexparticipatoryinterventionprojectsinCanadainahospitalandauniversity.Structuralequationmodelingwasusedtoexplorethespecificworkingmechanismsofparticularinterventionsonstressoutcomes.Theresultsofthisstudyshowedthathigherexposuretointerventionsaimingtomodifytasksandworkingconditionsreduceddemandsandimprovedsocialsupport,butnotjobcontrol,whichinturn,reducedpsychologicaldistress.Exposuretointerventionsaimingtoimproverelationshipswasnotrelatedtopsychosocialrisks.Moststudiescannotexplainhowinterventionsproducetheireffectsonoutcomes,especiallywhentherearemultipleconcurrentinterventionsdeliveredinseveralcontexts.Thisstudyadvancesknowledgeonprocessevaluationbyusinganadaptedstudydesigntocapturetheactiveingredientsofmulti-componentinterventionsandsuggestingsomemechanismsbywhichtheinterventionsproducetheireffectsonstressoutcomes.Inaddition,thesefindingsalsoprovideanillustrationofhowtoconductprocessevaluationandrelateexposurelevelstoobservedoutcomes.Pignataetal.(2016)Theseresearchersusedthesocial-exchangetheoreticalframeworktoexaminetheeffectofemployees’awarenessofstressreductioninterventionsontheirlevelsofpsychologicalstrain,jobsatisfaction,organizationalcommitment,perceptionsofseniormanagementtrustworthinessandproceduraljustice.Theresearcherspresentlongitudinalpaneldatafrom869employeeswhocompletedquestionnairesattwotimepointsat13Australianuniversities.Theresultsofthisstudyshowedthatemployeeswhoreportedanawarenessofstress-reductioninterventionsundertakenattheiruniversityscoredloweronpsychologicalstrainandhigheronjobsatisfactionandcommitmentthanthosewhowereunawareoftheinterventions.Theresultsindicatethatsimplytheawarenessofstressinterventionscanbelinkedtopositiveemployeeoutcomes.Thestudyfurtherrevealedthatseniormanagementtrustworthinessandproceduraljusticemediatetherelationshipbetweenawarenessandemployeeoutcomes.Bowenetal.(2014)Thisstudyusedanonlinesurveytocollectopinionsfromarchitects(n=3,025),civilengineers(n=1,842),quantitysurveyors(n=1,449),andprojectandconstructionmanagers(n=3,359)inSouthAfrica.Theresultsofthisstudyshowedthatamajorityoftherespondentsexperiencehighlevelsofstressatwork.Architects(morethanengineers,quantitysurveyors,andprojectandconstructionmanagers)andfemale(morethanmale)professionalsfeelstressed.Psychologicaleffectsofworkplacestressincludethefeelingofnotbeingappreciatedbyothersforajobwell-done,feelingdissatisfiedwithone’sownperformanceatwork,andfeelingtenseatwork.Physiologicaleffectsincludedisturbancestousualsleeppatterns,difficultyinrelaxingafterhours,anddifficultyinconcentrating.Sociologicaleffectsincludeastrainonfamilylife,socialactivities,andsocialrelationships.Awiderangeofpositivecopingmechanismsareusedbytherespondents,includingphysicalexercise,spendingtimewithfamilyandfriends,traveling,watchingtelevisionandmovies,surfingandwatersports,jogging,archery,meditationandprayer,yoga,cycling,shooting,fishing,hikingandcamping,golf,gardening,squash,cooking,reading,card-playing,model-building,wininganddining,photography,woodwork,gaming,listeningtomusic,participatinginmartialarts,motorbikeriding,4×4driving,andtryingtogetmoresleep.LemaireandWallace(2010)TheseresearchersusedamixedmethodsstrategytoexplorefactorsrelatedtophysicianwellnesswithinalargehealthregioninWesternCanada.Thestudyfocusedonthecopingstrategiesthatphysiciansuseinresponsetowork-relatedstress.Thequalitativecomponentexploresphysicians’selfreportedcopingstrategiesthroughopenendedinterviewsof42physiciansrepresentingdiversemedicalspecialtiesandsettings(91%responserate).Themajorthemesextractedfromthequalitativeinterviewswereusedtoconstruct12surveyitemsthatwereincludedinthecomprehensivequantitativequestionnaire.Questionnairesweresenttoalleligiblephysiciansinthehealthregionwith1178completedsurveys(40%responserate.)Questionnaireitemswereusedtomeasurehowoftenphysiciansdrawonthevariouscopingstrategies.Feelingsofburnoutwerealsomeasuredinthesurveyby5itemsfromtheEmotionalExhaustionsubscaleoftheRevisedMaslachBurnoutInventory.Themajorthemesthatemergedfromthedataanalysisincludedthecopingstrategiesthatthesubjectsusedintheworkplace(i.e.,workingthroughstress,talkingwithco-workers,takingatimeout,usinghumor)andafterwork(e.g.,exercise,quiettime,spendingtimewithfamily).Analysisofthequestionnairedatashowedthreeoftenusedworkplacecopingstrategieswerepositivelycorrelatedwithfeelingemotionallyexhausted(i.e.,keepingstresstooneself(r=.23),concentratingonwhattodonext(r=.16),andgoingonasifnothinghappened(r=.07)).Somelessoftenusedworkplacecopingstrategies(i.e.,takingatimeout)andallthoseusedafterworkwerenegativelycorrelatedwithfrequencyofemotionalexhaustion.Basedonthesefindings,theseresearchersconcludethatphysicians’selfreportedcopingstrategiesarenotallcreatedequalintermsoffrequencyofuseandcorrelationwithfeelingemotionallyexhaustedfromone’swork.Theresearchersalsoconcludethatthesefindingscanbeintegratedintopracticalphysicianstressreductioninterventions.Harknessetal.(2005)Thisstudyuseddiscourseanalysistoexplorethewayinwhichemployeesunderstandworkstress.Twenty-twofemaleclericalworkersinaCanadiancityparticipatedinfocusgroupmeetingswheretheytalkedaboutandmadesenseoftheirexperiencesofworkstress.Thewomen’saccountswereanalyzedusingdiscourseanalysismethods(i.e.,anexaminationofhowtalkisconstructed).Thefindingsthatemergedfromthisstudyshowedthatsimplytalkingaboutbeingstressedprovidesasociallyacceptablewayofexpressingdiscomfortandregainingasenseofimportancethatislostthroughfeelingunder-valuedandunderappreciatedintheorganization.Incontrast,admittingtobeingunabletocopewithstresswasconsideredtobe‘abnormal’.Thestressdiscoursefostersasenseofhelplessnessandambiguitybynotacknowledgingexternalinfluencesonclericalworkers’experiences,suchastheirplacewithinthepowerstructureoftheorganization,andbylimitingtheirsenseofagencyandcontroloverproblemsexperiencedatwork.Theimplicationsofthesefindingsfororganizationalcultureandinterventionsincludetheneedforemployerstobeconsciousofthemessagesbeingsenttoemployeesabouthownegativeemotionsordistressingexperiencesatworkaretobeaddressed(i.e.,how‘stress’istobemanaged).Therecommendationsthatwereprovidedbytheseresearchersincludedtheneedfortheexaminationofalternativediscoursesthataimtoimproveconditionsatwork.Howard(2008)Usingasystematicreviewoftherelevantliteratureandacasestudyofsupervisoryinterventionsforoccupationalstressmanagement,thisresearcherdrewonconceptsfromthefieldofpositivepsychologysuchasworkengagement,senseofcoherence,self-efficacy,flowandresiliencehasbeguntoprovidedetailedunderstandingofworkers’happiness,healthandbettermentBasedonthefindingsthatresultedfromthisstudy,Howardconcludedthattherelationshipbetweensupervisorandsuperviseeneedstobeoneinwhichtrustandempathyarebuiltfromtheoutset.Inaddition,itisalsoimportanttoconsiderwhentoapplythesemethods.Therearemanyopportunitiesforthesupervisortodoso.Opportunitiesmayincludecasediscussion,video-oraudio-tapereview,reviewingsuccess,learningneedsassessment,evaluationprocesses,professionalcompetencereviews,andteamworkanalysis.Dedicatedsessionsmaybeseenasimportantfromtimetotime,especiallywhenreviewsofthesupervisionhavebeenplanned.Adedicatedsessioncouldalsobecomeanopportunityforacelebrationofachievement.Gunn(2013)Thestudyusedacasestudyandhistoricprospectivemixed-methoddesign,comprisedofsixhomecareunitsinaNorwegianmunicipality(n=138respondents;responserate=76.2%or17informants.Thestudyincludedquantitativeestimations,registerdataofsickleave,atimelineofsignificanteventsandchanges,andqualitativedescriptionsofemployeeappraisalsoftheirworksituationgatheredthroughsemi-structuredinterviewsandopensurveyresponses.Thefindingsofthestudyshowedthattheworkenvironmentinterventionswereingeneralregardedaspositivebythehomecareworkers;allunits,though,weresimultaneouslysubjectedtosubstantialcontextualinstability,involvingnewworkprograms,newtechnology,restructurings,unitmergers,andmanagementreplacements,perceivedbythehomecareworkerstobemajorsourcesofstress.Thesefindingssuggestthatconcurrentchangesinducedthroughrationalizationresultedinnegativeexposureeffectsthatnegatedpositiveworkenvironmentinterventioneffects,causinganoveralldeterioratedworksituationforthehomecareworkers.Rinaldietal.(2010)Thisrandomized,controlledstudyevaluatedtheeffectivenessintheimprovementofthepsychicandsymptomaticstress-relateddisordersbymeansofradio-electricstimulationonsomeauricularreflexpointswithadevicenamedthe“radio-electricasymmetricconveyer”(REAC).Thestudywasconductedon124subjectswithpsychologicaldistresssymptomsthatwereassessedbytheSymptomaticCheckList-90pre-andpost-intervention.Afterrandomization,twogroupswerecreated:agrouptreatedwitheffectiveREACandagroupthatunderwentthesametreatmentwithdisarmedREAC(theplacebogroup).ThefindingsthatresultedfromthisstudyshowedthattherewasasignificantreductioninSCL-90scoresinthetreatedgroupcomparedwiththeplacebogroup.Theresultsofthepsychometrictestsshowedthatthesubjectswhounderwenteffectivetherapyshowedastatisticallysignificant(p

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